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1492 Review A review of Marvin Lunenfeld's 1492: Discovery, Invasion, Encounter; Sources and Interpretations by Thomas C. Tirado, Director of CIRS. 1991.
AARONS01 ART (Anthropology) "The Lucayans: The People Whom Columbus Discovered in the Bahamas" by George A. Aarons. Five Hundred Magazine. April 1990, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 6-7. Pertains to the lifestyle, culture, and society of the Lucayans who resided in the Bahamasin the Age of Discovery.
ADORNO01 ART "Early Peruvian recorded daily life under the rule of Spanish conquistadors" by Rolena Adorno in: The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1). An account of the Nueva Crónica of Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala (published 1615.)
ADORNO02 ART "The Discursive Encounter of Spain and America: The Authority of Eyewitness Testimony in the Writing of History" by Rolena Adorno in The William and Mary Quarterly (April 1992, Vol. XLIX, No. 2, pp. 210-228). Compares writings of del Castillo, Cabeza de Vaca, and Las Casas, what influenced each one's view of the encounter, and how their accounts were received.
AGUILAR1 ART Article in Spanish by Lic. Agustin Aguilar, Antropólogo e Historiador Mexicano, "La Comunicación Entre los Mayas" from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, D.F., August 12, 1992.
ALBION NTS Robert, G. Albion. Exploration and Discovery Macmillan Company, NY 1965 14 pgs. Discusses excitement and environment of the Age of Discovery and its impact on the Iberian Peninsula.
ALEXAN01 ART "Columbus to be remembered here" by Larry Alexander in Lancaster Intelligencer Journal, October 11, 1991, pp. B1-B2. Columbus to be remembered in Lancaster by statue; also relates 3 different views on the importance of the Quincentenary.
ALLARD01 ART "The Pluricultural Unity of America" Americas Mar/Apr '84 2pgs. Some general history about first settlements and Columbus. Reflections on a multicultural nation.
AODTIR01 BIB A lengthy bibliography by subject heading, compiled by T.C. Tirado, Director of CIRS. 18 pages.
AODTIR02 BIB A bibliography of Columbus and related topics in foreign languages, by T.C. Tirado, Director of CIRS.
AROHA-01 ART "Grand Regatta Columbus 92-Quincentenary" by Yole Aroha. Five Hundred Magazine. April 1990, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 16-17. Talks about the grand regatta of tall ships that is planned to sail across the Atlantic in 1992 commemorating Columbus' voyages.
ASCD-01 REV ASCD Columbian Quincentennial Network and Clearinghouse Newsletter, Sept., 1991. This newsletter contains an annotated bibliography of books related to the quincentenary that are suitable for school age children.
ASHMORE1 ART Book Review by Wendy Ashmore. Archaeology. July/August 1990, pp. 70-74. Review of six books pertaining to the Aztecs and their empire.
ATKINSON NTS William L. Atkinson. A History of Spain and Portugal Penguin Books, London 1960. 2pgs. Discusses key points in the history of the Iberian Peninsula starting with the reconquest.
AUCHIN01 ART "When Worlds Collide" by Kenneth Auchincloss in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 8-13. Celebrate it or bemoan it: the encounter between East and West had vast consequences that are still unfolding today.
AVILA-1 ART "Cinco Siglos de Imaginación Creadora" by Edgar Avila Echazu, Poeta y Ensayista Boliviano. Article in Spanish from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales (No. 9), México, June 12, 1992. The author discusses how the influence of the spanish language (Castellaño) and religion (Catholism), intertwined with that of the native indians of the Americas to create various cultures and traditions that are now part of our world.
AXTELL01 ART "The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America" by James Axtell in Humanities, September/October 1991, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 12-18. Discusses the ethnic makeup and the lives of the people in post-Columbian America.
AXTELL02 ART "Columbian Encounters: Beyond 1992" by James Axtell in The William and Mary Quarterly, (April 1992, Vol. XLIX, No. 2, pp. 335-360). Provides an overview of the educational events and resources developed around the quincentennial. Touches on various view points which determined how the event would be commemorated.
AYLWIN-1 ART "500 Años del Encuentro Entre Dos Mundos" by Patricio Aylwin Azocar, Presidente de la República de Chile, from Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No. 8), Reforma No.18-4 piso, Mexico, D.F., May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
AZUELA-1 ART "El V Centenario Desde México" by Arturo Azuela, Escritor Mexicano, Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No. 8), Reforma No. 18-4 piso, Mexico, D. F., May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
BAKER-01 ART "Quincentennial Fever" by James N. Baker in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 79-80. A short calendar of quincentennial events that will be going on all over the world from October 1991 to December 1993.
BAQUERO1 ART "La mala imagen de Espana a finales del XIX" by Gaston Baquero in America 92 (IV Centenario del Descubrimiento de America), in Spanish.
BARNARD1 ART "A Year Long Voyage of Investigation", Lesson Plan by Mary Ann Barnard in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 36-40. A lesson plan to get all disciplines in the school (mostly history) involved in an investigation into the voyages of discovery.
BEACH-01 ART "Indians discover Columbus '92 not to their liking" by: Mark Beach, Sunday New Staff Writer in: Sunday News, Lancaster (June 10, 1990, p. B1). Article about Indian reluctance to participate in celebrations. Group of Indians visited Mennonite center in Lancaster County and expressed their displeasure over planned celebration.
BEGLEY01 ART "The First Americans" by Sharon Begley in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 15-20. If humans first crossed the Bering Strait 12,000 years ago, then who built the 40,000-year-old sites that are scattered from the hills of Pennsylvania to the tip of Chile?
BERNABU1 ART "Del Centenario de Colon - al encuentro de dos mundos" by Salvador Bernabeu in America 92 (IV Centenario del Descubrimiento de America).
BIKAI-01 ART "Timelines: A Phoenician Fable" Archaeology Jan/Feb '90 5 1/2 pgs. Some archaeology but more historical arguments for pre-Columbian Atlantic voyages.
BINGHAM1 ART "Teaching the Columbian Quincentenary" by Marjorie W. Bingham in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 5-6. Marjorie Bingham gives six major ways to celebrate the Quincentennial with some sensitivity within the school curriculum.
BLOCK-01 ART Quincentennial Bibliography by David Block in SALALM Newsletter, Vol. 18, No. 3, December 1990, pp. 25-29. An annotated bibliography of monographic series concerning the Quincentenary.
BOALS-01 EXB "The Story of an American Heritage", Pamphlet from Chapel of the Family of Christopher Columbus and the Boal Mansion. Describes the mansion, chapel, history of the family and special events planned for the Quincentennial.
BOWEN-01 ART "The Three Caravels and Their Return to America" by Sarah Bowen. Encounters: A Quincentenary Review, Summer 1990, pp. 28-30. Details of the replicas of the three caravels which will set sail from Spain in 1992 and of the route they will follow.
BOWEN-02 ART "The Buried Mirror" by Sarah Bowen in Encounters, Autumn 1990, pp. 15-16. A televised documentary series narrated by Carlos Fuentes examines present-day issues in Latin America and its underlying history, culture, and institutions.
BRICENO1 ART "La Hazaña de Colón" by Mario Briceño Perozo, Director del Archivo General de la Nación en Venezuela, from Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No. 8), Reforma No. 18-4 piso, Mexico, D. F., May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
BUISSER1 ART "Spain Maps Her 'New World'" by David Buisseret in Encounters (February 1992, No. 8, pp. 14-19). Discusses Spanish colonial cartography and the importance of map-making to the Old World. Also examines the difficulties involved in cartography at this time of exploration.
CADAVAL1 ART "Living Cultures of the Americas" by Olivia Cadaval, Ph.D. in The New World (Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, p. 6). This article gives an overview of the Smithsonian's Office of Folklife's Program dealing with the impact on the historical development of the vernacular culture in the New World.
CARENAS1 SPK "The myth of Santiago de Espana and its repercussion in the Spanish Reconquest and in the New World" by Francisco Carenas. This paper examines the belief in the Santiago de Espa¤a and the repercussions this had to the Spanish in their establishing a national conscience.
CARRIL-1 ART "Américo Vespucio," by Ethel Carrillo, Periodista de EXCELSIOR. Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), October 12, 1992. The contribution of Vespucci to the discovery of the "New World".
CARVAL-1 ART Article in Spanish by Reynaldo Montefilpo Carvallo, Editorialista ULTIMA HORA/Paraguay, "La Economía del Indio Mexicano Precolonial, from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, D.F., August 12,1992
CASO-01 REV "The Known but Unknown Pilot" by Adolph Caso in The World & I, (December 1991, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 394-401). Review and critique of John Dyson's book "Columbus: For Gold, God and Glory", and John Noble Wilford's book "The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy." See exerpt in DYSON-01 ART*.
CASSON01 ART "Setting the Stage for Columbus" (Portuguese mariners sail down the coast of West Africa and find a way to return against foul winds.) by: Lionel Casson in: Archaeology (May/June 1990, pp. 50-55). This article tells about the explorations of Portuguese mariners down the coast of West Africa and the importance these ventures had on Columbus' voyage of discovery.
CASTAN-1 ART "Plantas Medicinales" by Dr. Hermilo Castañeda Velasco, Profesor e Investigador del Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la UNAM from Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior, (No.8) Reforma 18-4 Piso, Mexico, D.F. May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
CATZ-01 SPK "Christopher Columbus and Portugal" by Rebecca Catz. Paper presented by Rebecca Catz, in Washington, DC, on September 25, 1990. Conference title: "Spain and Portugal of the Navigators: the Iberian Peninsula Countries, Europe and New Horizons." This paper discusses Columbus's days in Portugal and the great influence they had of his discovery voyages.
CATZ-02 SPK "Christopher Columbus's Portuguese Family" by Rebecca Catz. Paper presented at the XIII Symposium on Portuguese Traditions at UCLA on April 21, 1990. This paper explains how Columbus was related to the Portuguese and his Portuguese family, although Columbus himself was not Portuguese.
CATZ-03 SPK "Christopher Columbus in Madeira" by Rebecca Catz. Paper presented at the Colloquium on Discovery and Travel Literature on 3 November 1988, at the Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon. This paper discusses Columbus's relationship with the island of Madeira and dispels myths about Columbus's residence there.
CATZ-03P SPK "Christopher Columbus in Madeira" by Rebecca Catz. This contains identical information as CATZ-03 SPK* but it is written in Portuguese.
CATZ-04 SPK "Columbus in the Azores" by Rebecca Catz. Paper delivered on April 22, 1989 at UCLA's XII Annual Sympoium on Portuguese Traditions. Discusses Columbus's episodes in the Azores during his discovery voyages.
CERIO-01 ART "Were the Spaniards That Cruel?" by Gregory Cerio in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 48-51. Granted, the conquistadors weren't saints, but blame some of that savage reputation on a smear campaign directed against the Spanish.
CHALWAS1 ART "5 Ways We Can Hail Columbus" by Joan R. Challinor and Wilcomb E. Washburn. Five Hundred Magazine. April 1990, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 9-10. Discusses 5 ways that the quincentennial can be used to improve scholarship and knowledge in the Americas.
CHALWAS2 ART "The Possibilities of the Columbian Quincentennial" by J. Challinor and Wilcomb E. Washburn in Ideas '92, A Journal to Honor 500 Years of Relations among Spain, Latin America and the US (Vol. I, No. 2, Spr. 1988, pp. 29-41). This article examines the importance of observing the Columbian Quincentennial and the significance that this event has meant to the world, and our understanding of it.
CHANDLR1 ART " ANCIENT MARINERS: Strong evidence of Andean-Mexican seagoing trade as early as 600 A.D." by David L. Chandler, The Boston Globe, Aug. 14, '95. Pp. 25-27. Archeologists studying the ancients empires of Central and South America have long noticed similarities in some pottery designs and food crops and wondered whether mariners from the Andean coast traded with their counterparts 2,000 miles to the north. Now, an MIT researcher says she has strong evidence they did.
CHAPIN01 ART "Contemporary Indians and the Quincentenary" by Mac Chapin. Encounters: A Quincentenary Review, Summer 1990, pp. 22-27. Chapin calls for a voice and vote for today's native Central American Indians.
CHAVEZ01 ART "Columbus Redux: Great Sailor's Exploits More Fiction than Fact", a review of The Conquest of Paradise by Kirkpatrick Sale in the Times of the Americas (4/1791, p. 12).
CHAVEZM1 ART Article by Dra. Margarita Loera Chavez y Peniche y Dr. Javier Esteinou Madrid, Investigadores de la Dir. de Estudios Históricos de INAH, y del Dept. de Educación y Comunicación de la UAM-Xochimilco, "Cual es el Sentido de la Celebración del V Centenario?" from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, Mexico, August 12, 1992.
CHESSER1 ART "Columbus and the Renaissance" by: Mary Catherine Chesser in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 1; May/June 1989. This article pertains to the sculpture, architecture, and painting that emerged during the Renaissance and Age of Discovery.
CODY-01 ART Washington Post 13 FEB 88 1 1/2 pgs. Portugal's self commendation of former golden years, trying to capitalize on celebrations at hand for present down time.
COE-01 ART "A Triumph of Spirit" by Michael D. Coe in Archaeology (September/October 1991, pp. 39-44). This article examines the Russian epigrapher Yuri Valetinovich Knorosov and his breakthrough in reading Mayan hieroglyphs and the importance of his work to Mayan scholars.
COHEN-01 ART "The Naming of America: Vespucci's Good Name" by Jonathan Cohen in Encounters (Vol. 7, pp. 16-20). This article discusses the arguments that some scholars have concerning the validity of Amerigo Vespucci, who he was, and the naming of the continent.
COHEN-C1 SPK "Conversion Among Puritans and Amerindians: A Theological and Cultural Perspective" by Charles L. Cohen, Paper presented at the Conference on "Puritanism in Old and New England", Millersville University, Millersville, PA, April 3-6, 1991. This paper examines the transculturation of the Amerindians in the assimilation into Puritan society in New England, and the effects of this new religious culture in their lives.
COLINA-1 ART "Invitación al Descubrimiento" by Cino Colina, Crítico Literario y Responsable de la Sección Internacional de GRANMA INTERACTION/CUBA, from Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No. 8) Reforma 18-4 piso Mexico, DF May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
COLLIS NTS John Steward Collis. Christopher Columbus. Stein and Day, New York, 1977 9 pgs. Covers Columbus' life and the social/scientific evnironment which spurred him to explore.
COPE-01 ART "1492: Encounter of Two Worlds," An Undergraduate Quincentenary Course at Brown University, by Professors R. Douglas Cope and Thomas E. Skidmore. Design, rationale and outline of course.
COUGHLN1 ART "16th-Century de Soto Expedition Offers Scholars a Look at Earliest Encounters Between 2 Civilizations" by Ellen K. Coughlin in The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A8, A10-A11. Historians and archaeologists track Spanish explorer's contacts with nativ e societies of Southeast.
COWLEY01 ART "The Great Disease Migration" by Geoffrey Cowley in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 54-56. It wasn't swords or guns that devastated the native Americans; it was the germs the Europeans carried.
CROSBY01 NTS Alfred W. Crosby "The Columbian Voyages, The Columbus exchange and their Historians." American Historical Association, Essays on Global and Comparative History 1987 2 pgs. Discusses bardic writers fo history (contemporaries of Columbus and how they viewed the events).
CROSBY02 SPK Alfred W. Crosby "Rethinking the Encounter: New Perspectives on Conquest and Colonization, 1450-1550" Encuentro Quarterly, Vol. IV No. 2 University of New Mexico, Summer of 1988 5pgs. A discussion of two points. The egocentric and narrow minded view our European predecessors had of their encounter and conquest of the New World and its inhabitants, and the educated view we should take concerning the encounter.
CURRY-01 ART "Teaching the Quincentenary" by Glenn T. Curry. Encounters. Spring 1990, pp. 23-24. Gives an example of how to teach students about Columbus and the Age of Discovery so they better understand the Quincentenary.
DAVIS-D1 ART "Rumor of Cannibals" by Dave D. Davis in Archaeology, January/February 1992, p. 49. Short article on the Carib Indians of the Bahamas (during Columbus' voyages).
DEBENHA NTS Frank Debenham, Discovery and Exploration: An Atlas-History of Man's Jouneys into the Unknown. Geographical Projects, London, 1960. 2pgs. Discusses different exploration ventures of Phoenecians, Vikings through to Magellan.
DEBRAY1 ART "La Mirada de los Vencidos" by Regis Debray, Escritor Francés. Article in Spanish from Ediciones E speciales (No. 12) Excelsior, Mexico, September 14, 1992. The author describes the way the Haitians see the discovery of the new world through their paintings and artwork.
DELANEY1 ART "Was Columbus a Whiner? You Could Look It Up," Paul Delaney in the New York Times (October 13, 1987). Recent finding about Columbus from the Archives of the Indies.
DIAMOND1 ART "The Arrow of Disease" by Jared Diamond in Discover (October 1992 vol. 13 Number 10 pp. 64-73). This article describes the transmission of diseases from animal to human and the evolution from a animal disease to a human one. Describes the effects of European diseases to the population of the Americas.
DIETZ01 ART "Ecoside: Legacy of the West" by D.T. Dietz in The Snapper (October 12, 1992 Vol. LXI No. 5 p. 2). This article discusses the lecture given by Kirkpatrick Sale at Millersville University on Columbus Day.
DOLLE-01 ART "Hennepin's Story of La Salle in Indiana" by Raymond F. Dolle in Indiana English, Vol. 12, No. 1, Fall 1988, pp. 4-7. Gives descriptions of La Salle's exploration and other aspect of history in the Midwest from Hennepin's Description of Louisiana.
DOLLE-02 ART "Captain John Smith's Satire of Sir Walter Raleigh" by Raymond F. Dolle. This paper talks about both John Smith's and Sir Walter Raleigh's approach to exploration in the New World throuhg Smith's satire of Raleigh's hunt for gold.
DOLLE-03 ART "The New Canaan, the Old Canon, and the New World in American Literature Anthologies" by Raymond F. Dolle in College Literature 17.2/3, June/October 1990, pp. 196-208. Reviews the selections from early American literature in the major anthologies, critiques the traditional New England Puritan bias in the texts, and calls for a multicultural approach that includes Columbus and the other explorers during the Age of Discovery.
DOTTERER CWK "Christopher Columbus: Motivations to Reach the Indies by Sailing West," Janet L. Dotterer, a graduate paper written for Hi. 516, "The Age of Discovery," Millersville University.
DRAGO-01 ART Article by Tito Drago, Presidente del Club Internacional de Prensa, "Quinientos Años Despúes, España Puede Asumir el Papel de Rotula Integradora," from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, August 12, 1992.
DRAGO-02 ART "Cinco Siglos Después Apenas nos Conocemos" by Tito Drago, Presidente del Club Internacional de Prensa. Article in Spanish from Ediciones Especiales (No. 12) Exclesior Mexico, D.F., September 14, 1992. As the title suggest, after 500 years we are just starting to get acquainted.
DRAGO-03 ART "Fin o Principio del Camino?" by Tito Drago, Presidente del Club Internacional de Prensa, Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), October 12, 1992. The countries that have benefitted, specifically Spain, from the discovery of the Americas. Instead of the great celebration that it once was, the discovery of the "New World" is stirring the conscience of many due to the discrimmination and injustice that continues to exist against the natives of the Americas.
DUMENE01 ART "Looking for Columbus" by Joanne E. Dumene. Five Hundred Magazine. April 1990, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 11-15. Dr. Steven Mitchell suggests another possibility, Conception Island, for Columbus' first landfall in the New World.
DUNN-01 ART "The Columbians" New York Times 1 pg. Short historical blurb about the U.S. Post Office's commemorative Columbus stamp set issued in 1892.
DURANT NTS William Durant The Reformation - A History of European Civilization from Wyclif to Calvin: 1300-1564 Simon and Shuster, New York, 1957. 15pgs. Chapter XIII. Short synopsis of events occurring in the "known" world between 1300-1564.
DVORCHK1 ART "Goodbye, Columbus?" by Robert Dvorchak in Lancaster Sunday News, October 13, 1991, p. 2. Discusses the current Columbus debate showing both sides and says the Quincentenary should be used to tell the unvarnished story of Columbus.
ECKEL-01 SPK "What You Have Always Wanted to Know about Christopher Columbus" by Phyllis Eckelman. Presentation of research paper. Overview of Columbus, his voyages, and the quincentennial celebrations.
EIGELA01 ART "Islam Comes to Europe" Aramco World Magazine Sep/Oct '76 1 1/2pgs. Short history of Arab and other invader's influence on the Iberian peninsula. Arab influence .
EIGELA02 ART "Notes on Al-Andalus: A Search for Traces of Spain's Islamic Past" Aramco World Magazine Sep/Oct '76 6 1/2 pgs. Praises the Arab's influce on crafts and language, denigrates European influence. Also sort of a tour guide thing although he seems to detest tourists. Talks about things of interest that can be found in Valencia, Toledo, Cordoba, Granada, and Andalusia tracing them back to their Moorish roots.
EIGELA03 ART"The Golden Caliphate" Aramco World Magazine Sep/Oct '76 7 pgs. History of Caliphate in Cordoba.
EIGELA04 ART "The City of Al-Zahra" Aramco World Magazine Sep/Oct '76. About the splendor of Madinat-al-Zahr. Good article.
EIGELA05 ART "The Ripening Years" Aramco World Magazine Sep/Oct '76 4 1/2 pgs. History of Seville and its rulers.
EIGELA06 ART "The Final Flowering" Aramco World Magazine Sep/Oct '76 6pgs. History of splendor and downfall of Granada to Christians.
EIGELA07 ART "Escape from a Troubled World" by Tor Eigeland in Aramco World, Vol. 41, No. 5, September-October 1990, pp. 5-10. Discusses the past and present history of patios in Spain.
ELLIOTT NTS J.H. Elliott. The Old World and the New: 1492-1650 Cambridge University Press, 1970. 13pgs. Discusses the Europocentricity of our conception of history. Also discusses discovery's influence on Europe.
ENCYCLO NTS Duncan Castlereagh, "The Great Age of Exploration" The Encylcopedia of Discovery and Exploration. Doubleday Inc., Gordon City, NY 1973. Discusses how Columbus found America despite his misconceptions of global geography.
FAGAN-01 ART "A Clash of Cultures" Archaeology Jan/Feb '90 7 pgs. Reminder of pre-Columbian natives and their unfortunate plight. Expresses need to study and explore their history. Based on continued archaeological findings.
FAGAN-02 ART "Tracking the First Americans" by Brian Fagan. Archaeology, November/December 1990, pp. 14-20. Discoveries at archaeological site So Raimundo Nonato may date first Americans back 47,000 years but much precise scientific study is needed to either verify or disprove this fact.
FAGAN-03 ART "In the Footsteps of the Norse" by Brian Fagan in Archaeology Jan/Feb 1993 (Vol 46, No. 1, pp 14-18). Describes the Viking settlements at L'Anse-aux-Meadows in Ne wfoundland.
FAGAN-04 ART Article by Brain Fagan entitled "Flooding the Maya Heartland" Archaeology Magazine, September/ October 1992. Concern expressed over plans to create a dam on the Usumacinta River that separates Mexico and Guatemala. The river flows through a heavily forested region in the heartland of ancient Maya civilization. On its banks lie the great Maya centers at Piedras Negras and Yaxchilan.
FAGAN NTS Brian M. Fagan, The Great Journey: The Peopling of Ancient America Thames and Hudson, London, 1987, 5pgs. Discusses the Europeans' populating America and their dealings with and misconceptions of American natives.
FERNAN01 ART "Pre-Columbian Surgery" Gramma Weekly Review no date 2 1/2 pgs. Pre-Columbian head surgery (trephination). Interesting.
FFA-BC NTS Felipe-Fernandez-Armesto. Before Columbus University of PA Press. Philadelphia, 1987. 6pgs. Discusses how Europeans viewed foreign peoples and lands prior to Columbus.
FFA-CC NTS Notes from Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, Columbus: And the Conquest of the Impossible, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1974.
FIELDS-1 ART "A Jubilee in the Making" by Roland C. Fields in International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance (1988, pp. 1-14). Reviews various events celebrating the discovery of America.
FOOTE-01 ART "Where Columbus Was Coming From" by Timothy Foote in Smithsonian, December 1991, pp. 28-41. Describes the Europe of Columbus' times which shows how Columbus came up with his ideas and actions (puts Columbus' life in context).
FRAERMA1 ART "Colón: una Obsesión por Hallar los Montes de oro de Ofir y de Cipango" by Alicia Fraerman, Corresponsal de Ediciones Especiales De Excelsior en España. Article in Spanish from Ediciones Especiales (No. 9) Excelsior, Mexico, June 12 1992. Columbus' first voyage, not to interchange cultures, language or ideas, but for the sole purpose of gold and god.
FRAERMA2 ART "El Segundo Viaje Consolida la Presencia Española en América e Inicia el Declive de Colón" by Alicia Fraerman, Periodista Española. Article in Spanish from Ediciones Especiales (No. 12) Excelsior, Mexico, September 14, 1992. Lack of trust and confidence of the monarchs of Spain towards Christopher Columbus and his last voyage to the "New World".
FRAERMA3 ART "Colón Murió con la Gloria a Cuestas, Peleando por Recuperar sus Títulos," by Alicia Fraerman, from Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), Reforma 18-4 piso, Mexico, D. F., October 12, 1992. How the man who discovered the "New World", Christopher Columbus, died a sick man, without titles, honors and riches.
FRAERMA4 ART "Las Precauciones Confirman que Colón Sabía Adonde se Dirigía" by Alicia Fraerman, Corresponsal de Ediciones Especiales de EXCELSIOR (No. 8) Reforma 18-4 piso Mexico, D.F. May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
FUSON-CC NTS Robert H. Fuson, Translator The Log of Christopher Columbus International Marine Publishing Co. Camden, ME 1987. Discusses Columbus' log and its fate.
GAMAREKI ART "Exhibitions are Planned on Titian and 1492 Art" New York Times 13 Oct 89. Art show announcement about Italian artists and the influence of the "Age of Discovery " atmosphere in which they lived.
GANNON01 SPK Michael V. Gannon. "Spanish Pathways: First Encounters in the Caribbean and the Southeaster United States" Delivered at the Phileas Conference in November 1989 at Ft. Lauderdale. 6pgs. Discussion of the good and bad points of the Europeans' advent to the New World.
GARCIA-1 ART "También hay Otros Centenarios" by Mario Garcia Guillen, Escritor y Profesor de Historia de la Universidad de Sao Paulo, Article in Spanish from Ediciones Especiales (No. 9) Excelsior, June 12 1992. This article is about other centenarians that have completed and expanded this 500 year celebration of the "New World".
GARCIA-2 ART "El 'Mea Culpa' de Leonardo Boff" by Mario Garcia Guillen, Escritor y Dramaturgo Brasileño. Article in Spanish from Ediciones Especiales (No. 12) Excelsior, Mexico, September 14, 1992. Boff is the author of "América Latina: de la Conquista a la nueva evangelización". Editora Atica, Sao Paulo, 1992. This article focuses on the hypocrisy of the Catholic church during the period of Colonization of Latin America.
GATES-01 ART "Who was Columbus?" by David Gates in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 29-31. Describes Columbus' life and personality, though he is a tricky man to pin down.
GELMAN01 ART "Columbus and His Four Fateful Voyages" by David Gelman in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 39-46. A few adventurers may have landed before him, but Columbus's voyages were the ones that changed the world.
GEOG-INT ART Intelligencer Journal 16 Oct 89 2 1/4 pgs. Calls into question accepted landing places of Columbus. See BOWER 01 ART*.
GERMAN01 NTS German Arciniegas America in Europe. Discusses the impact the discovery of America had on Europe.
GERMAN02 NTS German Arciniegas Amerigo and the New World: The Life and times of Amerigo Vespucci. A biography of Amerigo Vespucci.
GERMAN03 ART "German Arciniegas, La Pasion Americana." Entrevista a German Arciniegas (autor: Pilar Lozano) en America 92, Numeros 8 y 9, primer y segundo trimestre de 1987. Article appears in Spanish. Author talks about 500 years of American history.
GIBSON NTS Charles Gibson. Spain in America Harper and Rowe, Scranton, PA 17pgs. Discusses Spanish involvement in the Americas.
GILES-01 ART "How Did Native Americans Respond to C GILES-01 hristianity?" by Thomas S. Giles in Christian History Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). This article uses first-hand acco unts to relate the story of some early conversions of the Native Americans to Christianity.
GONZALE1 ART "The New World will discuss process" by Alicia Maria Gonzalez, in The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1). From the inaugural edition of the magazine the director discusses the reason for a new journal from the Smithsonian Institution. Dedicated to the Americas.
GONZALE2 ART "La Olvidada Influencia Asiática" by Alicia M. Gonzalez, Directora de la Oficina de los Programas Para el Quinto Centenario, Smithsonian Institution. Article in Spanish from Ediciones Especiales (No.12) Excelsior, Mexico, Sept. 14, 1992. Lack of information by the historians on the influence Asia had in the Americas, and the possibility that navigators from Asia had been to the "New World" prior to discovery of Columbus.
GONZALE4 ART "Quinto Centenario del Encuentro de dos Culturas y Primer Siglo del Paseo Colón," by Enrique Gonzalez Isunza, Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), October 12, 1992. Article in Spanish about activities planned in Mexico to celebrate Columbus.
GORNSCH1 ART "National History Day Commemorates the Columbian Quincentenary" by Lois Scharf and Cathy Gorn in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, p. 49. Discusses National History Day and the broad number of topics available for study.
GOULD-01 ART "Heritage Gardens at National Zoo" by Edwin Gould, Ph.D. in The New World (Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, p. 7). This article examines the transformation of the National Zoo from a zoological park to a BioPark, this puts the animals into their natural surroundings offering a holistic experience to the visitor.
GRAFF-01 ART "Columbus comes to Millersville" by Mary Graff in The Snapper, Millersville University's Student Newspaper, May 6, 1992, p. 9. For the upcoming year, Millersville University's academic theme will be 'The Encounter of Two Worlds' - based on Columbus' voyage to the new world and its consequences.
GRAHAM01 ART Ian Graham, "Exposing the Maya" Archaeology, September/October 1990, Vol.43, No. 5. Article about photographing the Maya ruins.
GRANBER1 SPK "The Americas that Might Have Been" by Julian Granberry. Research paper. This paper discusses the civilizations of the pre-Columbian Americas and supposes what the world would be like today had Columbus not "discovered" America.
GRAY-01 ART "The Trouble with Columbus" by Paul Gray in Time, October 7, 1991, pp. 52-56. Explains both sides of the present argument about Columbus and the Quincentenary and suggests what the quincentennial should be utilized for.
GRAZIAN1 ART "Columbus and the Invention of Discovery" by Frank Graziano in Encounters, Autumn 1990, pp. 26-29. Discusses the views, ideas, and philosophy that Columbus held when he "discovered" the New World and how Columbus "invented" more than "discovered" the Americas.
GUERRA-1 ART Article by Francisco Guerra, Catedr tico de Historia de la Medicina de la Universidad de Alcala de Henares, "La Medicina Española Renacentista," from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, August 12, 1992.
GUERRA-2 ART "Los Virus, Antes que las Armas, Diezmaron a los Indígena" by Francisco Guerra, Doctor en Medicina E Historia, España. Article in Spanish from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales (No. 9), June 12, 1992. It was not so much the weaponry but rather the numerous diseases transmitted from these countries that destroyed the native populations.
GUERRA-3 ART "La Medicina Prehisp nica" by Francisco Guerra, Catedr tico de Historia de la Medicina de la Universidad de Alcal de Henares. Article in Spanish from Excelsior Ediciones Especiales (No. 12), Mexico, September 14, 1992. This article is about the influence prehispanic medicine has in today's world.
GUTREZ01 ART "Cristoforo Colombo and His Times" by: Alberto Gutierrez de la Solana, New York University, in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 1; May/June 1989. This article explains Columbus' efforts to get sponsorship from a European country his vision of reaching the Indies from the West and how Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs, finally agreed to help Columbus.
HALLRL-1 ART "Savoring Africa in the New World" by Robert L. Hall from Seeds of Change: A Quincentennial Commemoration, Edited by Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1991. Article on African foods and dishes from Africa that came into the Americas.
HARJO-01 ART "I Won't Be Celebrating Columbus Day" by Suzan Shown Harjo in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, p. 32. For Native people, it is time for 500 years of suffering to come to an end. Opinion of Suzan Harjo on how the quincentennial should be commemorated.
HARLOW01 ART "Hard Rock" by George E. Harlow in Natural History, August 1991, pp. 4-10. A mineralogist explores the origins of Mesoamerican jade.
HARO-01 ART "Religious Orders, The Indian, And The Conquest: Fifty Years of Dispute and Contradiction" by María Paz Haro, Translated by James Dunlap in Encounters, Issue 9. This article describes the arguments used by the religious orders those opposed the Spanish conquest and those who supported it during the years 1512-1562.
HATTON01 ART "Many nations honor Columbus on stamps" by Denise Hatton (Columbus Collecting section) in Linn's Stamp News, October 29, 1990, p. 38. As the Quincentennial approaches, more and more countries are offering commemorative Columbus stamps.
HAUBEN-1 ART A course proposal by Paul J. Hauben from THE HISTORY TEACHER, Volume 24, Number 2, February 1992; The Society for History Education. "Spain and Latin America: Notes on a Course Symbolizing the Columbus Quincentennial"
HAWKES01 ART "Author: Columbus cast New World in darkness" by Jeff Hawkes in The Intelligencer Journal (October 13, 1992 pp. B1-B2). Article recounts the lecture given by Kirkpatrick Sale on Columbus Day at Millersville University.
HEBERT01 ART "Exploring the Columbian Quincentenary Through Historiography" by John Hebert in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 11-13. How to study the different aspects of the Quincentenary through historiography giving many examples of useful books
HELLMUTH ART Article by Nicholas M. Hellmuth from Natural History Magazine discusses recent archaeological findings in Central America. Discusses the relationship of Teotihuc n and pre-Columbian Meso-America.
HENIGE01 ART "A Review of 'Discovering Columbus at Last: The Journal of the First Voyage.'" From Documentary Editing, a 1989 review of Bartolome de las Casas' The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493.
HERRMANN NTS Paul Herrmann, trans. by Michael Bullock. Conquest by Man Harper and Brothers, New York, NY 27 pgs. Discusses man's conquest of Earth from pre-history to the 1500s.
HEYERDA1 NTS Thor Heyerdahl Early Man and the Ocean Doubleday 1979 12pgs. Discusses the history of man's interaction with the sea and sea travel, for trade, discovery
HILTON01 ART "Bi-culturalism sweeps the U.S." by: Stanley E. Hilton in: The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1). Hispanic influence is a whole new culture in the Americas.
HOYE01 ART "Piri Reis and the Hapgood Hypothesis" Aramco World Magazine Jan-Feb 1980 15 pgs. Discussion of maps especially the Piri Reis map, helping to resolve some points of contention among historians.
IDALIA-1 ART Article by Maria Idalia, Periodista de Excelsior, "Mujeres Españolas," from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, D.F., August 12, 1992.
IDALIA-2 ART "Mujeres Españolas" by Maria Idalia, Periodista de EXCELSIOR, article from Ediciones Especiales (No. 8) Reform 18-4 piso Mexico, D. F. May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
ILLESCA1 ART Article by Carlos Illescas, Escritor y Diplom tico Guatemalteco,"Mi Descubrimiento de España," from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, D.F., August 12, 1992.
INDIOS-V ART "Los Indios americanos dan la espalda al V Centenario" Cambio 16, Madrid March '89 3 pgs. Article in Spanish about the Indians' rejection of any participation in Quincentennial activities.
ITJOURN1 BIB "A Selected Bibliography" by Paolo Emilio Taviani in Italian Journal (1991, Vol. V, No. 5/6, pp. 31-37). Bibliography categorized by subject. Includes writings from a variety of viewpoints.
JACHAT-1 ART "500 y 250 Años, Descubrimiento o Conquista?" by Karen Jachaturov, Doctor en Historia y Presidente del Comité Ruso de Cooperación y Solidaridad con los Países de América Latina, Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No. 8), Reforma No. 18-4 piso, Mexico, D. F., May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
JACKWILL REV A review by Jack S. Williams of Indians, Franciscans, and Spanish Colonization: The Impact of the Mission System on the California Indians, by Robert H. Jackson and Edward Castillo.
JARQUIN1 ART "Sepharad '92: Spain Takes Pride in its Jewish Heritage" by Charlotte Gruet-Jarquin in Encounters, Autumn 1990, p. 36. Upcoming projects planned by Sepharad '92, an International Jewish Committee.
JARQUIN2 ART "The Eight Ibero-American Conference Recognizes the Presence of Africa in America" by Charlotte Gruet-Jarquín in Encounters, Double Issue No. 5-6, pp. 46-47. Proceedings of the Eighth Ibero-American Conference of National Commissions for the Commemoration of the Discovery of America, October 1990, to consider "The Presence of Africa in America."
JB-TRYIN ART Chapter four of a Ph.D. dissertation (1976, Minnesota) published in 1982 by University Press of America as: Tryin' to Make It: Adapting to the Bahamas by: John Bregenzer, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Dayton. Brief history of a phase of Bahamian history.
JIMEN-01 REV"Lust and oppression in the Empire" by Felix Jimenez in The Times of the Americas (January 9, 1991, p. 15). Review of: Sea of Lentils by Antonio Benitez-Rojo. Translated by James Maraniss. The book combines fact and fiction about the Spanish domination of the Colonial Caribbean to produce "one of the best historical novels of the period."
JONES-01 ART "A Review 'A Conquistador's Personal Letters.'" From Documentary Editing, June 1990. Remote beyond Compare: Letters of don Diego de Vargas to His Family from New Spain and New Mexico, 1675-1706.
JUDGE-01 ART "The Columbus Landfall at Samana Cay" by Joseph Judge, Senior Associate Editor, National Geographic Magazine. Joseph Judge discusses his opinion on the actual landfall on Columbus' first voyage, providing evidence for Samana Cay and against Watling's Island.
JUDGE-03 ART "Tracing the Watling Island Landfall Track," A Memorandum by Joseph Judge, November 1989. Joseph Judge traces the track supported by Morison, Obregon, and Keegan of the Watling Island landfall in a seaplane flying at the height of the Santa Maria's crow's nest and points out differences between that route and the route written in Columbus's Log.
JUNCO-01 ART "Espana en 1892" by Jose Alvarez Junco in America 92 (IV Cent. del Descubrimiento de America).
JUNGER01 ART "The Search For Vinland." Oceans SEP/OCT '85 10 Pgs. Discussion of Viking voyages ot North America and methods of navigation.
JUNQUE01 ART "In Quest of Columbus..." Americas OCT '80 7pgs. Primarily a biography of Alice Gould, a Columbus historian, but some good history also included.
KEEGAN01 ART "Reconstruction of the Coastline of the Bahama Islands in 1492" by Steven W. Mitchell and William F. Keegan in American Archeology (Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987). Attempts to show how some theories on Columbus' landfall may be wrong by disproving various assumptions that those theories made.
KEEGAN02 ART "The Archeology of Christopher Columbus' Voyage Through the Bahamas, 1492" by William F. Keegan and Steven W. Mitchell in American Archeology (Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987). Tries to locate landfall island through Columbus' log and the use of archaeology.
KEEGAN03 ART "The Columbus Chronicles" by: William F. Keegan in: The Sciences (Jan/Feb 1989, published by the New York Academy of Sciences) An interpretation/book review of The Log of Christopher Columbus (Translated by Robert H. Fuson) and The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America 1492-1493 (Translated by Oliver Dunn and James E. Kelley, Jr.).
KEEGAN04 ART "Creating the Guanahatabey (Ciboney): the modern genesis of an extinct culture" by: William F. Keegan in Antiquity (Volume 63, Number 239, June 1989). Illuminates the facts about the cultures of the West Indies during the contact period of the late 15th and 16th centuries.
KEEGAN05 ART "Columbus and the City of Gold" by: William F. Keegan in: Journal of the Bahamas Historical Society. Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 34-39, 1984. Reviews what is known of Samaot (the city of gold) from Columbus' reports, and then present archaeological evidence that supports the identification of its location by the author.
KEEGAN06 ART "Beachhead in the Bahamas: Columbus Encounters a New World" by William F. Keegan in Archaeology, January/February 1992, pp. 44-50. The author gives his opinion along with supporting evidence of the location of Columbus's first landfall in the Bahamas.
KEEGAN07 ART "Destruction of the Taíno" by William F. Keegan in Archaeology, January/February 1992, pp. 51-56. A study of the Taínos of the Caribbean, early Spanish settlements, and how the natives (Taíno people) of these islands were destroyed.
KEEGAN09 ART "Riddles of Columbus" by William F. Keegan in Archaeology, January/February 1992, p. 59. There are many things about Columbus and his life that we still don't know today.
KELLY-01 ART "Dress, Diet and Discovery: Columbus Changed Them All" by: Mimi Kelly in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 1; May/June 1989, Coral Gables, FL 33146 U.S. Christopher Columbus Quincentenary Jubilee Commission. This article examines the everyday life of a person living in the age of Columbus and what that person would encounter in his/her daily routine.
KICZA-1 ART "Patterns in Early Spanish Overseas Expansion" by John E. Kicza in The William and Mary Quarterly (April 1992, Vol. XLIX, No. 2, pp. 229-253). Outlines different patterns of conquest / colonization used by the Spanish in the Americas, along with factors determining which patterns were used where.
KLEINB-1 ART "Don't blame Columbus for Indians' troubles" by: Howard Kleinberg in: Cox News Service. Author states why he feels the Indians' troubles were not caused by Columbus' discovery of America but by some of the explorers that followed.
KONING01 REV "Columbus: His Enterprise" by Hans Koning in Monthly Review Press (Spring/Summer 1992). Review of Hans Koning new book about the reasons behind Columbus's voyage.
KNIGHT01 ART "Afro-American Perspectives of the Christopher Columbus Quincentenary" by Franklin W. Knight, Ph.D., in The New World, Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, pp. 1, 8. Afro-Americans take a look at the Quincentenary and ask the question "What did Christopher Columbus and 1492 mean to America and the world?".
KRAUTH-1 ART "Hail Columbus, Dead White Male." By Charles Krauthammer, Time Magazine (May 27, 1991). Despite the negative articles appearing about Columbus and the Quincentenary, Krauthammer believes that it is appropriate to honor Columbus.
KTH-CRL1 ART "The Hunt for the Gallega" by Donald H. Keith and Toni L. Carrell in Archaeology, January/February 1991, pp. 55-59. Archaeologists search for the remains of Columbus's ship the Gallega in hopes of answering long-standing questions concerning Columbus's voyages and the ships he used .
LARSEN01 ART "Telltale Bones" by Clark Spencer Larsen in Archaeology (March/April 1992, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 43-46). This article examines the excavations of the Guale Indian sites of Florida and Georgia undertaken by the author and the anthropological information found here an relation to preand post-Contact Indians.
LATINOS1 ART "Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project." Encounters. Spring 1990, pp. 20-22. Discusses Latinos' role in the making of the United States and projects underway to better teach this role in the schools.
LAUFER01 ART "The Multi-Ethnic Columbus" Speech. 8 OCT89 31/2 pgs. Short biography of Columbus.
LAUFER01 REV Short reviews of 14 childrens' books; information taken from Vol V, #4 of the International Columbian Quincentenary Alliance Newsletter.
LAUFER01 SPK BEYOND TRADITIONAL BOUNDARIES: A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF THE MEANING OF THE QUINCENTENARY By Joseph M. Laufer, M.A. A paper delivered at Millersville University of Pennsylvania for the Columbian Quincentenary Project, "Teaching the Age of Discovery: an Introduction" -underwritten by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission - April 19, 1991. This paper discusses the educational importance that the Columbian Quincentenary has to offer to our understanding of the "New" World.
LAUFER02 ART "Columbus Myth Busters" Pamphlet 3pgs. Article composed of common myths about Columbus and most current facts to counter them.
LAWSON01 ART "History Proving Harder to Celebrate" New York Times 14 AUG '88 4pgs. Discussion of plans for American quincentenary celebration.
LEHN-01 ART "How a Foreshortened Arctic Led Norse Seamen to New World." Science Digest APR '80. Discussion of viking travels. Vikings may have "seen" the New World due to phenomenon called 'Arctic Mirage.'
LEICEST1 ART "Columbus's First Landfall" Sea Frontiers SEP/OCT '86. Discussion of various claims to Columbus' landfall.
LIBCON01 REF Quincentenary Schedule 1990-1994. Library of Congress. August 2, 1990. A list of activities planned by the Library of Congress during its five-year Quincentenary program plus other Quincentenary-related articles on the Library of Congress.
LISS-01 ART "Series will show common heritage" in The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1), excerpted from the treatment of the historical text by Peggy K. Liss for the television series, The Buried Mirror. The series is written and narrated by noted Mexican author, Carlos Fuentes, the programs will be produced in English, Spanish and Portuguese.
LOPEZ-1 ART "América en el Divan" by Alfonso López Michelsen, Ex-Presidente de Colombia, Article from Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), October 12, 1992. Two different schools of thought that has existed for decades concerning the discovery of the "New World".
LORD-01 ART "America Before Columbus" by Lewis Lord with Sarah Burke in U.S. News and World Report, July 8, 1991, pp. 22-37. America before Columbus was home to sophisticated, principled societies as well as savages.
LUNEN-01 ART Marvin Lenenfeld, "The Press Encounters Columbus: What Shall We Tell the Children?" from The History Teacher Volume 25 Number 2 February 1992. Dr. Lunenfeld teaches at State University of New York College at Fredonia and is the author of 1492: Discovery, Invasion, Encounter; Sources and Interpretations, D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA, 1991, 355.
LUNEN-02 ART "'Everything Shall Become A Desert': Amerindian Premonitions of the Coming of the White Man" by Marvin Lunenfeld in Proteus (vol. 9, no. 1; pp. 18-25). Presents the premonitions of the Native Americans regarding the uture of the Europeans in their new environment.
LUNEN-03 ART Lunenfeld, Marvin. "Columbus and Spain: Accident or Destiny?" Weber Studies: An Interdisciplinary Humanitarian's Journal. Vol. 9, no. 3. Ogden, Utah: Weber State College, Fall 1992. Columbus makes his way to the Spanish Crown in a very fluid society.
LYNCH-01 ART "Ships, Sailing and Sailors" by: Cassidy Lynch in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 1; May/June 1989. This article talks about the evolution of shipbuilding and sailing ships from their beginning to the present time.
MAHN-LOT NTS Marianne Mahn-Lot Columbus Grove Press Inc. NY 1961, 10 pgs. A biography of Columbus. Includes a calendar of events from 1451, birth of Columbus, to 1506, his death.
MANCERA1 ART Article by Miguel Mancera Aguayo, Director del Banco de México, "La Escuela de Salamanca y de las Indias," from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, México, D.F., August 12, 1992.
MANDELL1 SPK "'Changes in Latitude: Changes in Attitude': Indians and Puritans target=_top, 1640-1740" by Daniel Mandell Paper presented at "Puritanism in Old and New England," Millersville University, April 4-6, 1991. This paper deals with the changing attitudes of Puritans in New England towards the Indians of this period and how these attitudes affected the Indian communities in New England.
MARCH-01 ART "The Maroons of Jamaica" by Sydney March. Encounters. Spring 1990, pp. 25-26. A recount of the early revolts of the freed slaves in the Caribbean.
MARCH-02 ART "The Maroons: Dark Warriors of the Spanish Main" by Sydney March in The New World, Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, p. 3. A brief history of the Maroons (African slaves from the Guinea coast) in the West Indies.
MART*INE2 ART "Naturaleza y Naturaleza Humana; los Encuentros Entre Culturas Alejadas en el Tiempo" by Jorge Martínez Contreras, Profesor de Filosofía del Departamento de Filosofía de la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México. Article in Spanish from Excelsior Ediciones Especiales (No.12) México, September 14, 1992. Genetic interchanges not only of vegatables and animals of different ecosystems but also of the three major cultures: Asians-Americans, Europeans, and Africans.
MART*INE3 ART "Carlos Fuentes: Neither Discovery Nor Encounter but the Imagining of America," interview by Jose Tono Martínez and translated by Sharon Kellum. In Encounter (Issue 10 pp. 4-7.)
MART*KEL1 ART "Germ n Arciniegas: America was Invented: Now We Must Discover It" Interview by José Tono Martínez, translated by Sharon Kellum in Encounters (February 1992, No. 8, pp. 4-7). This article is based on one of the lectures Germ n Arciniegas, the Columbian historian, essayist, diplomat and statesman gave in Washington, D.C., and on a personal interview.
MART*Y-01 ART "The Clamor over Columbus" by Martin E. Marty in Christian History Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). This article examines the causes of Columbus's expedition to the New World along with what Christians can do now to heal the wounds.
MARVELS1 ART "1992-93 Academic Theme to Celebrate Columbus" by Susan Marvel in The Snapper, Millersville University Student Newspaper (February 19, 1992, pp. 5-6). This article discusses the events Millersville University has scheduled to commemorate the Columbian Quincentenary.
MATHEWS1 ART "In Quest of the True Columbus, 'Scientists Hope to Settle 4 Cities Claims of Having Explorer's Remains.'" 13 OCT 8, 3 1/2 pgs. In depth discussion /speculation of Columbus' remains.
MAZARR01 ART "Spain Welcomes a Diversity of Views" by Rafael Mazarrasa in Encounters (Issue 10 Page 19). The president of the Spain '92 Foundation reflects on the contemporary significance of the Columbian Quincentennial.
MCNEILL1 ART "How Columbus Remade the World" NEH Humanities Dec '85 Discussion of Pre-Columbian travel and the impact of Europeans on American natives.
MENON-01 HTML "The New Americans" by Shanti Menon in Discover: The World of Science, January 1997. Article describes recent interpretations of information found decades ago at Clovis and Folsom in New Mexico.
 MESTRE01 ART "The Quito School of Painting" by Ana M. Mestre. Five Hundred Magazine. April 1990, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 19-20. Talks about the history and evolution of colonial painting in Quito in the Baroque Era.
MICOZZI1 ART "Health and Disease in the New World" by Marc S. Micozzi, M.D., Ph.D., in Encounters, Double Issue No. 5-6, pp. 42-43. Discusses diseases in the Americas\ - both those before Columbus' arrival and those brought by the conquistadors-including some of their effects.
MILBRTH1 ART "The Contact Years: 1492-1570" Archaeology Jan/Feb 90 3 1/2 pgs. Talks about a quincentenial celebration display of artifacts and dioramas covering the first century of post-Columbus contact.
MILLER01 ART "The High Price of Sugar" by Susan Miller in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 70-74. To satisfy Europe's fondness for sweets and sugar, West Indian planters turned to Africa for plantation labor. Discusses slavery and the beginning of Europe's sugar industry.
MILLER02 ART "Why Did Columbus Sail" by Kevin A. Miller in Christian History Issue 35 (Vol XI, No 3). This article describes the "real" reasons for Columbus's voyage across the Atlantic.
MIRANDA2 ART Article in Spanish by Mario Miranda Pacheco, Escritor Boliviano, Catedr tico de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la UNAM, entitled "Del Pasado Cautivo al Colonialismo Posmoderno" from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, Mexico, D.F., August 12, 1992.
MOLANDR1 ART "Columbus was a Latitude Sailor" by Arne B. Molander. Encounters: A Quincentenary Review, Summer 1990, pp. 12-15. Arne B. Molander inqugurates a lively debate on the technical aspects of Columbus's voyages.
MOLNOR01 ART "Did Seaweed Lead Columbus to the Antilles?" Arne B. Molander and James N. Norris in Encounters, Double Issue No. 5-6, p. 49. Another hypothesis to explain Columbus's amazingly accurate navigation across the Atlantic.
MORAL01 ART Article by Dr. Francisco Morales Padron of Sevilla. In Spanish from local newspapers. "Denuesto y comprension de un pasado" in La Provincia (Sunday, 01/01/1989)
MORAL02 ART "Interrogatorio a los sevillanos ilustres de la Biblioteca Colombina" by Francisco Morales Padron in A B C (January 10, 1986).
MORAL03 ART "Castilla, unica promotora y responsable" by Francisco Morales Padron in: A B C (June 9, 1986)
MORAL04 ART "De Colon a Fidel Castro" by Francisco Morales Padron in A B C (October 9, 1986)
MORAL05 ART "Lo que no se ha hecho para el 92" by Francisco Morales Padron in La Provincia (January 24, 1988).
MORAL06 ART "La mistica del 92" by Francisco Morales Padron in A B C (April 14, 1988).
MORAL07 ART "El tiempo que queda" by Francisco Morales Padron in A B C (April 30, 1988).
MORAL08 ART "Descubrimiento, encuentro y otros eufemismos" by Francisco Morales Padron in: A B C (March 5, 1986).
MORAL09 ART "Reyes de Espana en el monasterio de las cuevas" by Francisco Morales Padron in A B C (September 18, 1988).
MORAL10 ART "Aquella madrugada del 11 al 12 de octubre" by Francisco Morales Padron in: A B C (October 12, 1988).
MORGANT1 ART "Slavery: How It Built the New World" by Tom Morganthau in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, pp. 66-69. The brutal truth is this: without the slave labor of 10 million Africans, the Americas would not have been developed.
MORISON1 NTS Samuel Eliot Morison. The Great Explorers: The European Discovery of America Oxford University Press, New York, 1978 6pgs. These selections are a biography of Columbus.
MOTA-1 ART "Being and Becoming an Indian: The Case of the Shoko and Kariri-Shoko of Northeast Brazil" by Clarice Novaes da Mota from Proteus, Volume 9, Number 1, fall 1992. Published by Shippensburg University. Impact and effects of Europeancolonization process on two Brazilian national populations.
MURRIN01 ART "The European Age of Exploration: A Chronology and a Selected Bibliography" Chronology: The Americas, Africa, and Europe In the Age of Exploration. by Mary R. Murrin, New Jersey Historical Commission Department of State. This article consists of a chronology of North America from 7000 BC to AD 1700.
NAGIN-01 ART Arts and Antiques. May 1990, pp. 98-104, 134-145. How the plundered treasure from the greatest archaeological discovery ever made in the Americas\ - the graves of the Lords of Sipan--was smuggled onto the international ART* market.
NCSS-01 ART "The Columbian Quincentenary: An Educational Opportunity" An official position statement developed by National Council for the Social Studies, October 1991. May be reproduced without permission. The goals and objectives of the NCSS in reference to the teaching of the Columbian Quincentenary are outlined in this article.
NERI-1 ART An article by Rolando Neri Vela, Prof. e Invest. del Centro Médico Naval, "El Descubrimiento de la Quinina," from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales, Mexico, D.F., August 12, 1992.
NERI-2 ART "El Origen de la Enfermedad Entre los Mexicas" by Rolando Neri Vela, Profesor e Investigador del Centro Médico Naval, article from Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No.8), Reforma 18-4 piso, Mexico, D. F., May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
NEW*ATLAS ART "Space age brings new atlas" in: The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1), about satellite coverage and how it is changing the face of the Earth; sharper images than ever before.
NEW*SBRF1 ART "Newsbriefs." Archaeology, September/October 1990, pp. 14-15. Short articles concerning recent archaeological news.
NEW*TON NTS Arthur Percival Newton The Great Age of Discovery Burt and Franklin, NY 1970. 24 pgs. Discusses the continuity of history, calls in to question historians' arbitrary assignment of timeframes to historical periods.
NEW*WRLD1 ART "Quincentenary Calendar: Exhibits, Events and Publications" in The New World, Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, p. 2. A calendar of exhibits, events and publications planned by the Smithsonian Institution.
NIETO-01 ART "Columbus's Spain" by Jose Manuel Nieto Soria in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 18-19. Columbus's arrival in Spain and his formulation of the Enterprise of the Indies neatly coincided with Spain's history as well as its then-current events (i.e., Columbus was the "right man in the right place").
NORWOOD1 ART "Columbus' First Landing Moved 65 Miles" Los Angeles Times 9 OCT 86 2 pgs. A report on the National Geographic Society's findings of Columbus' first landing site.
OBREGON1 SPK Mauricio Obregon. "Columbus' First Landfall" Delivered at the Phileas Conference in November 1989 at Ft. Lauderdale. 20pgs. Discussion of Columbus' navigation including: dead reckoning, latitude sailing, magnetic variation and units of measurement.
PAEZ-01 ART "Circa 1492: ART* in the Age of Exploration" by Anthony Pez Mullan in Encounter (Vol. 7, pp. 35-39) This article tells about the exhibit, "Circa 1492: ART* in the Age of Exploration", showing at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C..
PAHMC590 EXB Columbus Quincentenary Celebration. Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission. A list of activities sponsored by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission for the Columbus Quincentenary Celebration that are under way or will be undertaken in the near future in Pennsylvania.
PALMER01 ART "The Early Black Diaspora in the Americas: The First Century After Columbus" by Colin Palmer in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 27-30. Black history in the first century after 1492 and in early America.
PARREI01 ART "A primeira «conquista» de Benguela" by Adriano Parreira in Historia, XII, No. 128, May 1990, pp. 65-68. Article in Portuguese.
PARRENT1 ART "Zeroing in on the Capitana and the Santiago" by James Parrent, Hawk Tolson, Paul Willoughby, Derek Ryter, and Marianne Franklin in Archaeology, January/Febraury 1991 pp. 53-54. Archaeologists are looking for the remains of the Santiago and the Capitana in St. Ann's Bay; located three possible locations so far.
PARRY-01 NTS Selected passages from: J. H. Parry, The European Reconnaissance: Selected Documents, Walker and Co., New York, 1968. Illustrates the European discovery of the remainder of the world from Asia and Africa to the Americas.
PARRY-02 NTS Notes on the book by J.H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance, The World Publishing Company, Cleveland & New York, 1963.
PECK-01 ART "Columbus used Dead Reckoning Navigation in His 1492 Voyage of Discovery to the New World" by Douglas Peck. Encounters: A Quincentenary Review, Summer 1990, pp. 18-21. Peck claims that Columbus lacked knowledge of celestial navigation and used dead reckoning instead.
PECK-01 REV A review of Pecks 1993 book entitled Cristoforo Colombo: God's Navigator by Thomas C. Tirado, professor of history and sysop of CIRS on Columbus and the Age of Discovery at Millersville University.
PECK-01 SPK Douglas T. Peck. "Reconstruction and Analysis of the 1492 Columbus Log" Delivered at the Phileas Conference in November 1989 at Ft. Lauderdale. 31 pgs. Discussion of the Columbus 'log' by a man who sailed the route following Columbus' recorded directions.
PENA-R-1 ART"An Encounter with History" by Alfonso Pena-Ramos for the Millersville University's Review, Spring 1992
PEREAL1 ART "El V Centenario y los Olvidos de la Historia" by Hector Perea, Escritor méxicano. Article in Spanish from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales (No. 9) Mexico, June 12, 1992. About not only remembering the discovery of the "New World", but also remembering the history after the discovery. Focus on Spain and Mexico.
PERCOCO1 ART "An Examination of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition", Lesson Plan by James A. Percoco in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 41-42. A one-period lesson plan to inform students about the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.
PEREZ-01 ART "Aquella primera conmemoracion del descubrimiento" by Antonio Perez in America 92 (IV Centenario del Descubrimiento de America).
PEREZ-02 ART "Quid de victis faciamus" by Antonio Perez. Article in Spanish.
PEREZ-03 ART "Souvenirs quinientistas del Caribe" by Antonio Perez in Presencia Hispanica, Numero 2, 1988, pp. 30-33. Article in Spanish.
PEREZ-04 ART "Todas las sangres" by Antonio Perez in Nuestra casa comun, October 12, 1990, pp. 35-40. Article in Spanish.
PEREZ-05 ART "Cuarenta millones de desconocidos" by Antonio Perez in America '92, Septiembre-Noviembre 1989, No. 2, pp. 10-11. Article in Spanish.
PEREZ-06 ART "Indoamerica" by Antonio Perez. Article in Spanish.
PERLMTR1 ART "I think the Indians Discovered America" The New York Times 10 OCT 87 2 pgs. Lists claims and quarrels of myriad nations and ethnic groups as to who played the most essential roles in the 'discovery of America.'
PFEIFFE1 ART "The Mysterious Rise and Decline of Monte Alban" by John E. Pfeiffer. Smithsonian. February 1980, Vol. 10, No. 11, pp. 62-74. In Mexico anthropologists plot trajectory of a great civilization that bloomed before Columbus and then inexplicably disappea red.
PHILLIP1 ART "The Textbook Columbus: Examining the Myth" by Carla R. Phillips and William D. Phillips, Jr. in Humanities, Vol. 12, No. 5, September/October 1991, pp. 27-30. Examination of textbooks, biographies and histories written from 1777 to today in search of the changing images of Columbus.
PHILLIP2 ART An article by Carla Rahn Phillips, "Sources for the Life and Times of Christopher Columbus," from Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies Bulletin (Winter 1992, Vol. XVII, No. 1, pp. 8-18). Historiography.
PHILLIP3 ART An article by Carla Rahn Phillips and William D. Phillips, "Christopher Columbus in United States History: Biography as Projection." Good historical survey of the history of the history of Columbus.
PHILLIPS4 ART "Voyage of Destiny" by William D. Phillips, Jr., and Carla Rahn Phillips in American History Illustrated (pp 29-70). Columbus's early struggles in receiveing backing for his quest to find a route to the East from the courts of Portugual and Spain, using an abstract from Columbus's own diary kept during the first voyage of 1492.
PINZON-1 ART "Descubrimiento de América, Empresa Andaluza?" (Sin los Pinzones, y especialmente sin Martin Alonso, como sostiene su homónimo, Colón no hubiera llegado a América y, sobre todo, no hubiera podido regresar a Europa.) By Marin Alonso Pinzon, Santiago de Chile. Ediciones Especiales,(No. 13), Oct. 12, 1992. About the important role that the Pinzon family played.
PIRES-01 ART "Image of the Indian in Portugal and U.S. didn't reflect reality" by: Maria Laura Bettencourt Pires in: The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1). A focus on the Indian-white relations and the conflict of values and ideas behind the darker side of the European westward expansion, which gave rise to and supported white attitudes toward the Indian.
PLAZAS1 ART "Gold of El Dorado: Technology of Ancient Colombian Gold" by Clemencia Plazas and Ana Maria Falchetti de Saenz. Natural History. November 1979, Vol. 88, No. 9, pp. 36-46. Section about a dramatic exhibition\ - more than 500 pieces of prehistoric gold and pottery--that went on a National Tour beginning in November 13, 1979.
POHLNEW*C NTS Frederick J. Pohl The New Columbus Security Press, New York.1968 6pgs. Biography of Christopher Columbus.
POHLVESP NTS Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major Octagon Books, New York. 1966. A biography of Amerigo Vespucci.
POLZER01 ART "The Quincentenary and the Superbowl Sunday Syndrome" by: Charles W. Polzer in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 1; May/June 1989. This articles describes the method of American celebration and how America will celebrate the Quincentenary in 1992.
PORTER-1 ART "The Scientific Cosmos Of Columbus: An Overview" BY Charlotte M. Porter From Proteus Volume 9. Number 1. Fall 1992. Published by Shippensburg University. Survey. Bibliography.
PRESS-01 ART "Columbus, Stay Home!" by Aric Press, Patricia King, Karen Springen, Shawn D. Lewis, Michael Mason and Lucille Beachy in Newsweek, June 24, 1991, pp. 54-55. A bitter debate over Columbus's 500th anniversary.
RABASA01 SPK Jose Rabasa "The Encouter of Cultures in the Sixteenth Century Mexico." Delivered at the University of Maryland at College Park. 13 pgs. Discussion of a summer field trip organized by the Department of Spanish and Portuguese at University of Maryland at College Park and how it might serve as a model for undergraduate courses and graduate seminars. Bibliography.
RACKLEFF ART "On De Soto's Trail" Historic Preservation, National Trust for Historic Preservation. No date. 5 pgs. Synopsis of the discovery and partial excavation of De Soto's base camp in Tallahassee FL.
RAMENOF1 ART"Death by Disease" by Ann F. Ramenofsky in Archaeology (March/April 1992, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 47-49). This article details the effects of disease on the native inhabitants of the American territories during the Age of Exploration.
REBER-01 ART "Introduction" to the journal on Columbus by Vera Blinn Reber and Lori Madden from Proteus, Volume 9 Number 1.Fall 1992. Published by Shippensburg University.
REID-01 ART "Reflections: Waiting for Columbus" by Alastair Reid in The New Yorker (February 24, 1992, pp. 57-75). This article discusses the different events and celebrations that are planned around the world in different countries, most notably Spain and Santo Domingo.
REITER01 ART "A Medal for Christopher Columbus." The New York Times 12 OCT 86 1pg. How Columbus funded his trip.
RENSBRG3 ART "'Where Did Columbus Really Land?' 5 Year National Geographic Study Settles on a Different Bahamian Isle.'" 9 OCT 86 3 pgs. Discussion of National Geographic's proposed original Columbus landing site.
RICE-01 ART "Roots" by Don S. Rice in Natural History, February 1991, pp. 10-14. Resourceful Maya farmers enabled a mounting population to survive in a fragile tropical habitat. This is the second in a series of articles that explore recent discoveries and interpretations concerning the rise and fall of ancient Maya civilization.
RIVERS01 ART "Exiles from Andalusia" by Susan T. Rivers in Aramco World, July/August 1991, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 10-16. In the 200 years after 1492, the reconquista drove the Arabs from southern Spain. Many found refuge in Tunisia, where they implanted the crops, architecture, dress and customs of Andalusia - and remember their homeland.
ROACH-1 HTML "New World Pompeii" by Mary Roach. Fourteen hundred years ago a Central American volcano erupted encasing an entire village in ash. Today that modest village is revealing what no stone temple or gold mask ever could: the details of ordinary life.
ROBBINS1 ART "Interest Rises in Celebrating Ties to Sain" The New York Times. 9 JUL 87 2 pgs. Discussion of upcoming events to celebrate Spanish legacy in U.S. not much history.
ROBINS-1 ART Article by Eugene Robinson entitled "Paupers in a World Their Ancestors Ruled: South American Indians still live under the thumb of the conquistadors," The Washington Post National Weekly Edition. July 8-14, 1991. p. 9. Then and now type article.
ROHTER01 ART "Spain Ahoy! Reborn Columbus Ship Heads Back." Alvarado Journal New York Times 31 AUG 87 2pgs. Discussion of the building of a Santa Maria replica and planned voyages.
ROUSE-01 ART "Whom Did Columbus Discover in the West Indies?" by Irving Rouse in American Archeology (Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987). Explains how the inhabitants of the Caribbean played a central role in the early years of the discovery of the New World.
ROSE-01 ART "For some, it's a time of mourning" by: Wendy Rose in: The New World (Spring 1990, No. 1). A lyric account of the sadness felt by a descendent of native Americans on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage.
ROY-01 ART "Isabella of Castile: Reflections of a Queen" by: Joaquin Roy, University of Miami in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 1; May/June 1989. Life of Isabella, Queen of Spain, and her impact on Columbus and his voyages of discovery.
ROYAL-01 ART "1492 and Multiculturalism" by Robert Royal in The Intercollegiate Review, Spring 1992, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 3-10. Discusses the current narrow-minded views of many so-called multiculturalists and gives historical facts that show all sides of the story.
ROYAL-02 ART Columbus on Trial: 1492 v. 1992 by Robert Royal, foreword and epilogue by Cecilia Kirk, Young America's Foundation. A defence of Columbus in the face of PC attacks.
ROYAL-03 ART "Columbus As A Dead White European Male: The Ideological Underpinnings of the Controversy Over 1492" by Robert Royal in The World and I (Dec. 1991, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 46-56). Defends the historical notion that the New World's discovery by Europeans was fortuitous. Faults critics of Columbus and Quincentennial celebration as militant environmentalist and radical anticapitalists.
RUBLUO-1 ART "Los Conceptos Paralelos en el Nuevo Mundo" by Luis Rubluo, Investigador de la Comisión Nacional Bancaria, article from Ediciones Especiales, Excelsior (No. 8) Reforma 18-4 piso, Mexico, D. F., May 12, 1992. In Spanish.
RUTTER01 ART "Rediscovering Columbus: MU prof will help mark 500th year" by Jon Rutter, Sunday News (December 17, 1989, pp. 1-2). Article about Millersville University professor and the creation of the Computerized Information Retrieval System on Columbus and the Age of Discovery. Cover historical question also.
RUVALCA1 ART "Measles and Small Pox as an Allied Army of the Conquistadors of America" by Carlos Ruvalcaba, translated by Theresa M. Betz, in Encounters, Double Issue No. 5-6, pp. 44-45. Explains how measles and small pox became instruments of conquest.
SALE-02 ART "The Columbian Quincentenary: A Necessary Reassessment" by Kirkpatrick Sale in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 20-23. Explains why Columbus' 'discovery' was a significant event, dispels various Columbus myths, and reassesses the Quincentenary's importance from today's perspective.
SALE-03 ART "What Columbus Discovered" by Kirkpatrick Sale in The Nation, October 22, 1990, pp. 444-446. A brief history of what Columbus encountered when he landed in the Indies in 1492 along with some effects of the encounter.
SANCHEZ1 ART "The Ambiguity of Legitimacy: Entitlement and the Legacy of Colonialism" by Joseph P. Sanchez, in Encounters (Fall 1992, Issue 10, pp. 24-29, 50). Looks at colonialism and neo-colonialism, and the attitudes which foster an ability to "conquer" others.
SANOFF01 ART "The Myths of Columbus" Conversation with Alvin P. Sanoff. U.S. News and World Report, October 8, 1990, p. 74. Talks about the following: Columbus, the man; the myths about Columbus; and the celebration of Columbus in America.
SAUER01 NTS Northern Mists University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA. Discusses history of the Iberian Peninsula through Colombus, also discusses Viking forays to America.
SCHAFFR1 ART "On the Edge of the Maya World" by Anne-Louise Schaffer in Archaeology (March/April 1992, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 50-52). Discusses the Ulúa marble vases on exhibit at the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas.
SCHR*OED1 ART "Should We Scuttle the Admiral of the Ocean Sea?" by Richard C. Schroeder in The Times of the Americas, May 29, 1991, p. 20. Tells how Columbus is not to blame for atrocities of centuries ago or today, but the human race is.
SCHUES01 ART "Ferdinand Magellan: The Greatest Voyager of Them All." Sea Frontiers SEP/OCT 84 6 1/2 pgs. Short history of Magellan, the unsung explorer and his final voyage.
SCHULTZ1 ART "THE ROLE OF THE VATICAN IN THE ENCOUNTER" by RICHARD W. SCHULTZ for History 392 "Columbus and the Age of Discovery," winner of the Age of Discovery Theme Prize in 1993 at Millersville University. Bibliography.
SCHUSTR1 ART "The Vikings Are Coming!" by Angela M.H. Schuster in Archaeology (September/October 1991, pp. 22-30). An account by the author of his voyage on a replica Viking ship from the ninth century, retracing the path of Leif Eriksson.
SEGAL-01 ART "What to do about Columbus" by Aaron Segal. The Times of the Americas, November 14, 1990, Vol. 34, No. 22, p. 5. Talks about the quincentennial celebrations plans for the countries in the Americas and the feelings of countries toward the Quincentenary.
SENSEN01 CWK "Marco Polo: An Inspiration to Christopher Columbus and the Age of Discovery" by Pearl L. Sensenig; Hi. 516, Graduate Course at Millersville University.
SERRANO2 ART "Guatemala y el Encuentro de Dos Mundos" by Ing. Jorge Antonio Serrano Elias, Presidente Constitucional de Guatemala. Article in Spanish from Excelsior Ediciones Especiales (No. 12), Mexico, September 14, 1992. The author suggests that beside having a vast celebration we recognize the suffer, pain and injustices during the birth of the Americas.
SES-DAV1 ART "By My Spirit" by Julieta Sesma and Russ Davidson in Encounters (Vol. 7, p. 10). An overview of the celebration of the spiritual celebration, "Be My Spirit", in Toledo and Jerusalem during May 1992.
SHAFFER1 ART "The Hemispheric Roots of the Columbian Voyages" by Lynda N. Shaffer in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 24-26. Shows some possible origins for the ideas behind the voyages of discovery that come from West Africa and Southeast Asia.
SHIRK-01 CWK "Encounter With the New World: European Psyche Confronting Its Own Dragons" by Willis Shirk paper for History 392, Dr. Thomas C. Tirado, September 20, 1991. This paper presents the argument that the ways in which the Europeans dealt with the New World religious culture was in response to the fear of their own pre-Christian beliefs.
SMITH-01 ART "Fathoming Columbus' Caravels" Americas SEP/OCT '84 5 Pgs. Discussion of ships Columbus sailed and archaeological remains.
SMITH-03 ART "Ships of Exploration" by Roger C. Smith in Archaeology, January/Febraury 1991 pp. 48-52. Painstaking nautical sleuthing is slowly yielding clues to how vessels in the Age of Discovery were built, outfitted, and armed.
SNYDER01 ART "Council of Churches condemns Columbus" by Richard A. Snyder. Lancaster New Era, September 19, 1990. This article explains the condemnation of Columbus by the NCC and expresses the opposing opinion of the author.
SOKOLOV1 ART "Columbus the Unwitting: Among the explorer's inadvertent discoveries was the Windward island of Dominica" by Raymond Sokolov in Natural History, October 1990, pp. 34-38. Talks about the island of Dominica in the Caribbean and its culinary tradition.
SOKOLOV2 ART "Stop Knocking Columbus" by Raymond Sokolov in Newsweek, Special Issue, Fall/Winter 1991, p. 82. Fed up on all this self-hating revisionism. Let's raise a glass and hail our 500th.
SOKOLOV3 ART "Montserrat's Secret Gardens" by Raymond Sokolov in Natural History (April 1992, pp. 72-75). An account of the "Seeds of Change" exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
SOKOLOV4 ART Raymond Sokolov, "This is Quinoa," from Natural History 6/92. An article about the Columbian exchange of foods.
SORRE-01 SPK Lucio M. Sorre. "Christopher Columbus - His Gastronomic Persona" Delivered at the Phileas Conference in November 1989 at Ft. Lauderdale. 6 1/2 pgs. Discussion of Columbus, his men and the food the ate.
SOUBRI01 ART "1892: Centenario sin rostro" by Juan Gomez Soubrier in America 92 (IV Centenario del Descubrimiento de America).
SPAIN-92 ART "Programs and Designated Projects" in Spain '92 Foundation's 1992 Annual Report, (pp. 7-13). Listing and explanation of events, resources, exhibits, and projects sponsored by Spain '92 and Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario.
SPEARS01 ART "Columbus' Colony Believed Found" by Gregory Spears in Lancaster Intelligencer (October 12, 1987). Scientists believe they have found the village, Navidad, built by the crew of the Santa Maria after it was shipwrecked. First European settlement in the New World for 500 years.
STANN-01 ART "Genocide in The Americas" by David E. Stannard in The Nation, (October 19, 1992 pp. 430-434). This article describes the killing of the native population of the Americas during European contact, and the effects this had on those societies.
STAUFFR1 ART "Seeds of Change" by Barbara Stauffer in The New World (Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, pp. 6-7). This article examines The National Museum of Natural History exhibit, "Seeds of Change," examines five singularly powerful agents of change to the New World - namely, corn, the potato, sugar, the horse and disease.
STUART*01 ART "City of Kings and Commoners: Copan" by George E. Stuart. National Geographic Magazine, October 1989, pp. 488-505. New discoveries at Copan in western Honduras help explain the mysterious "collapse" of this Maya capital a millenium ago.
SULLIVA1 ART "An Ongoing Voyage, 1492-1992: The Library of Congress Quincentenary Program" by John Sullivan in Library of Congress Information Bulletin (January 29, 1990, Vol. 49, No. 3). An account of the meeting of the Old World and the New.
TAVIANI1 ART "Columbus the Man: Modern Psychology on a Medieval Basis" by: Paolo Emilio Taviani in: Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 2; Oct/Nov 1989. This article describes Columbus, the man - his thoughts, beliefs, ideals, values, qualities plus much more.
TAVIANI2 ART "Christopher Columbus: His Birthplace and His Parents" Chapters II and III of Paolo Emilio Taviani's Christopher Columbus: The Grand Design, Orbis Publishing Ltd., London, 1985, reprinted by permission of the author. Five Hundred Magazine, Volume 1/No. 2; Oct/Nov 1989. Relates the origins of Columbus as far as what is known.
TAVIANI3 ART "Columbus The Man: A Psychologically Modern Man of the Middle Ages" by: Paolo Emilio Taviani in Italian Journal (1990, No. 2, Vol. IV). Foremost Columbus authority in Italy discusses Columbus, the man.
TAVIANI4 ART "Christopher Columbus: Genius of the Sea" by Paolo Emilio Taviani, in Italian Journal (1991, Vol. V, No. 5/6, pp. 5-37). Detailed comparison of, and conclusions about, research into Christopher Columbus' family and personal background. Examines context and possible motivation for Columbus.
TELLECH2 ART "Colón" by Juan Carlos Tellechea, Periodista de la Agencia de Noticias DPA. Article in Spanish from Excelsior Ediciones Especiales (No. 12), Mexico, 9/14/92. This article is about the possibility that Christopher Columbus intentions were not to travel to the Far East but to the West.
TERRAR01 ART Catholic Mission History and the 500th Anniversary of Christopher Columbus's Arrival: a Time for Mourning and for Celebrating. This paper examines the Mission history of the European explorers.
TESHUD01 ART "Before Oglethorpe: Hispanic and Indian Cultures in the Southeast United States", Lesson Plan by Carmen Chaves Tesser and Charles Hudson in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 43-46. A lesson plan on the geography and Hispanic and Indian cultures of the Southeast United States.
TOLEDAN1 ART "Toledo: Capital of Sepharad" by Samuel Toledano in Encounters, Autumn 1990, pp. 37-41. Author reviews the historical and current developments affecting the Sephardic community.
TOLSTOY1 ART "Paper Route" by Paul Tolstoy in Natural History, June 1991, pp. 6-14. Discusses the possibility that the manufacture and use of bark paper was introduced into Mesoamerica from Asia.
TONSKY01 ART "The State of Things: The Indigenous Question in the Americas" by Guillermo Tonsky, trans. by David Margolin. Encounters. Spring 1990, pp. 30-33. A summary of the results of the 7th Iberoamerican Conference of Quincentenary Commissions.
VENTURI1 ART "Imagining the New World: Columbian Iconography: An Exhibition of the New York Historical Society" adapted from the exhibition publication by Umberto Venturini in Italian Journal (1991, Vol. V, No. 5/6, pp. 38-42). Lays out the themes covered in an exhibition of books, drawings, globes, instruments, etc, from the days of Columbus.
VERA1 ART "La Realidad Frente a la Utopía" by Helio Vera, Escritor Paraguayo. Article in Spanish from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales (No. 9), Mexico, June 12, 1992. What is the truth? Was Columbus actually the first one from the "Old Country" to discover the Americas or had there been others who had come to the "New World" prior to his discovery.
VILLA-03 ART "La cultura Maya, en peligro de extinción." An interview with anthropologist Dr. Kathleen Truman about her work with the Maya community. She speaks of the neccesity of preserving the Indian culture, Por Esto! March 30, 1991.
VILLA-08 ART "Hacia el V Centenario: La segunda evangelización." An article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castill in Spanish from the newspaper POR ESTO! in Mérida, México, 22 de abril, 1991. About the role of the Catholic Church in Latin America and its second evangelization.
VILLA-09 ART "Hacia el V Centenario: Día del indio?" Article by Carlos Villanueva in Spanish from the newspaper POR ESTO! in Mérida, México, 26 de abril, 1991. Commentary on the meaning of the "Day of the Indian" to Mexican Indians.
VILLA-10 ART "Hacia el V Centenario: El punto de vista indígena." An article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in Spanish from the newspaper POR ESTO! in Mérida, México, 29 de abril, 1991. About the demands of the Indians in light of the up-coming quincentenary commemorations.
VILLA-11 ART "Hacia el V Centenario: La literatura indígena." Article by Carlos Villanueva in Spanish from the newspaper POR ESTO! in Mérida, México, 3 mayo, 1991. Discusses pre-Colombian and indigenous literature and the discovery of America.
VILLA-12 ART "Un proyecto internacional." See VILLA-01 ART*. May 8, 1991. Article deals with Millersville University's Computerized Information Retrieval System (CIRS) on Columbus and the Age of Discovery program.
VILLA-13 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México of May 14, 1991. "Mayo 1493: América Española." This article is in Spanish and is about the donation of the "new" lands to the Spanish Kings, the extension of the Christian Empire and the recognition of the Catholic religion.
VILLA-16 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México June 6, 1991. "Filosofía de la conquista" This article is in Spanish and is about the philosophy of the discovery. This essay intent to communicate the ideological and historical process of the discovery, rather than a mere celebration between two part of America and Spain.
VILLA-20 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México June 23, 1991. "El indígena: realidad y fantasía" This article is in Spanish and is about the existence, injustices, and solidarity of the indigenas in Mexico. In general is about the struggle between reality and fantasy.
VILLA-22 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México July 9, 1991. "12 de octubre: El mito" This article is in Spanish and is about the myth of the discovery of America in which a rare incident the of the discovery will change the outlook of the "discovery" itself.
VILLA-23 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México July 15, 1991. "Porqué aún lloramos" This article is in Spanish and is about the reasons why the indigenas still crying. It covers the injustices and cruelties done to the indian population in Mexico.
VILLA-24 ART Article by Carlos R. Villaneva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México July 19, 1991. "Oxkintok: Crónica de visita real" This article is in Spanish and is about the visit of Queen Sofía to the archaeological site of Oxkintok, Mexico.
VILLA-25 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México July 27, 1991. "Códices indígenas 500 años después" This article is in Spanish and is about the requisition by the mexican government of the last survival codes or rules of the maya Indians exhibited in museums in Europe.
VILLA-26 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México July 31, 1991. "La conquista inconclusa" This article is in Spanish and is about how the guatemalans see the discovery of America as an incomplete conquest in which many indigenas cultures were demolished by one culture (Spaniards).
VILLA-27 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México August 9, 1991. "Jan de Vos...una voz" This article is in Spanish and is about the view point of an anthropologist, Jan de Vos, regarding the discovery of America and the extinction of the maya culture in the process.
VILLA-29 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México August 24, 1991. "Cuestión de clases, no de razas" This article is in Spanish and is about an interview to Rigoberta Menchú, a guatemalan indian, in which she emphasizes that the celebration of the 500 years must include the indigenas point of view rather than the one and only version from the Spaniards.
VILLA-30 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México August 27, 1991. "Emancipación e identidad" This article is in Spanish and is about a forum that proposed 7 activities with the intention to promote solidarity among America per se.
VILLA-31 ART Article by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in POR ESTO! Mérida, México July 20, 1991. "Oxkintok, cronica de una visita real (II y última parte) This article is in Spanish and is the continuation of villa-24 art, July 19, 1991.
VILLA-35 ART "Cine de los 500 años" by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in Por Esto! (s bado 14 de septiembre de 1991, p. 2). Movies and videos on 500th Anniversary themes.
VILLA-37 ART "Etnias" by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo in Por Esto! (s bado 21 de septiembre de 1991, p. 3). A review of the magazine "Etnias; a statement on Indian America.
VILLA-66 ART "La era del descubrimiento" by Carlos R. Villanueva Castillo, in Por Esto! (miércoles 12 de febrero de 1992, p. 3). Article about Millersville University's CIRS project and the year long commemoration of the Age of Encounter.
VINBAR01 ART "Columbus: What If?" by Aileen Vincent-Barwood in Aramco World (January/February 1992, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 5-9). This article discusses the possibilities that if Columbus had followed and studied the Muslim scientific data of the day, he would not have miscalculated the distance of his voyage.
VIOLA-01 ART "The Seeds of Change" by Herman J. Viola in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 31-32. Not until quite recently have the consequences of the changes wrought by the New World's early visitors been fully understood.
VIOLA-02 ART "The Great Exchange" by Herman J. Viola in Archaeology, January/February 1992, pp. 57-58. This article describes the Seeds of Change exhibition, which is an attempt to understand the impact of Columbus's encounter with the New World.
VIOLA-03 ART "Columbus and the World" by Prof. Gianni Eugenio Viola in Italian Journal, 1991, Vol. V, No. 5/6, pp. 3-4. A short article on Columbus and his place in history.
VOYAGES1 CHR Frederick J. Pohl "Chronology of Voyages of Exploration, 1486-1522" Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major 2pgs. Chronology of voyages; dates sailed from home port, where they went and when returned.
WALDRON1 ART "The Age of Discovery: The Columbus Quincentennial." New Jersey Historical Commission Newsletter. no date 3 1/2 pgs. Discussion of the Age of Discovery. Contributions facilitating factors, causes and effects.
WALSH-01 ART "Spanish Road, American Destinies, 'Voyages to the Interior'" by Lawrence B. Walsh in Encounters, Double Issue No. 5-6, pp. 56-61. The author retraces the Camino Real, a great landmark of the Spanish-American heritage.
WARHUS01 ART "Columbus Maps Find Home. Quincentennial Exhibition Highlights Discovery" Association of American Geographers no date 1pg. Map exhibition announcement.
WARREN01 ART "The Encounter: Native Americans and the Quincentenary" Reprinted from Encuentro, A Columbian Quincentenary Newsletter, Latin American Institute, UNM by Dave Warren in: Five Hundred Magazine, Vol. 1/No. 1; May/June 1989. Indians and of Indian concerns within national and international arenas today and the effect of the Quincentenary celebration on the Indians.
WARREN02 ART "History's Great Surprise: The American Indian" by David Warren in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 5-6. An overview of the encounter of 1492 concentrating on the Indians of the New World plus a summarized history of the Indian in America since 1492 including a look into the future.
WASHBR02 ART "Preparations and Problems of Preparing for the 500th Anniversary of Columbus's Discovery of America" by Wilcomb E. Washburn in "Anais Hidrograficos, Tomo XLI" (Suplemento), 1984. Discusses problems and objections that have arisen about the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Columbus's discovery.
WASHBR03 ART "As Ilhas Can rias e a Quest o do Meridiano de Referência: A Busca do Rigor na Mediç o da Terra" by Wilcomb E. Washburn in A Abertura do Mundo: Estudos de História dos Descobrimentos Europeus, Vol. 1, pp. 213-220. Article in Portuguese concerning the establishment of the Prime Meridian in the quest to accurately measure the earth.
WASHBR04 ART "The Canary Islands and the Question of the Prime Meridian: The Search for Precision in the Measurement of the Earth" by Wilcomb E. Washburn from V Coloquio de Historia Canario-Americana (1982): Coloquio Internacional de Historia Marítima. Article concerning the establishment of the Prime Meridian in the quest to measure accurately the earth.
WASHBR05 ART "The Age of Discovery" by Wilcomb E. Washburn in American Historical Association Publication Number 63, copyright 1966, pp. 1-26. Gives an overview of all facets of the Age of Discovery and also lists books, articles, journals, etc., in which more specific information can be found about each subject.
WASHBR08 ART Article by Wilcomb E. Washburn entitled "Japan on Early European Maps" from Pacific Historical Review issued quarterly by The Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association. (August 1952)
WASHBR09 ART Wilcomb E. Washburn "SAMUEL ELIOT MORISON, HISTORIAN" from The William and Mary Quarterly 3d Series, Vol. XXXVI, July 1979 Copyright 1979, by the Institute of Early American History and Culture.
WASHBR10 ART Article by WILCOMB E. WASHBURN entitled "A Proposed Explanation of the Closed Indian Ocean on Some Ptolemaic Maps of the Twelfth-Fifteenth Centuries" in the CENTRO DE ESTUDOS DE HISTORIA E CART*OGRAFIA ANTIGA Serie Separatas 177.
WASHBR11 ART "Columbus: On and Off the Reservation" by Wilcomb Washburn for the National Review, October 5, 1992. Book review of two recent books dealing with Indian America.
WASHBR12 ART "Exploration and Discovery before 1492" by Wilcomb Washburn from The Christopher Columbus Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, 1992., Silvio Benini, Editor, pp. 257-260. Survey of discoveries from antiquity to Columbus.
WATTS03 ART "Science, Religion, and Columbus's Enterprise of the Indies" by Pauline Moffitt Watts in OAH Magazine of History, Vol. 5, No. 4, Spring 1991, pp. 14-17. Columbus was seeking to demonstrate the special role he believed he was destined to play as the 'Christ-bearer' in the unfolding historical events.
WEAVER-B ART "Controversial author to give lecture" by Brian Weaver in The Snapper (October 7, 1992 p. 14). This article tells of the upcoming talk by Kirkpatrick Sale on Columbus Day at Millersville University.
WEST-01 ART "Medieval Ideas of Apocalyptic Mission and the Early Franciscans in Mexico." Delno C. West. The Americas, Vol. XLV, January 1989, No. 3, pp. 293-313. Talks about apocalypticism within the Franciscans and its relation to the discovery of the New World.
WEST-02 ART "Wallowing in a Theological Stupor or a Steadfast and Consuming Faith: Scholarly Encounters with Columbus' Libro de las profecias" by Delno C. West. Discusses Columbus' literary work Libro de las profecias and hints to his theology and apocalypticism contained therein.
WEST-03 ART Delno West, "Christopher Columbus and His Enterprise to the Indies: Scholarship of the Last Quarter Century." From the William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. XLIX, No. 2, April, 1992. A historiographical article.
WESTKLN1 ART "Columbus and Columbia: A Brief Survey of the Early Creation of the Columbus Symbol in American History" by Delno C. West and August Kling in "Studies in Popular Culture" (XII: 2, 1989, pp. 45-60). Prolific writer on Columbus talks about symbolism.
WESTKLN2 ART "Reflections on the Coincidences of Christopher Columbus's Libro de Las Profecías and the American Dream" by Delno C. West and August Kling in Encounters, Double Issue No. 5-6, pp. 22-24. Reflections on the similarity of themes in Columbus's Book of Prophecies and in how the first American epic writers envisioned the American ideal.
WILFORD1 ART "Columbus Landed Somewhere Else, Maybe" 9 OCT 86 The New York Times 3 pgs. Review of another proposed Columbus landfall. Proposed by Samuel Eliot Morrison.
WILFORD2 ART More debate over Columbus landfall.
WILFORD3 ART "Dominican Bluff Yields Columbus's First Colony" by John Noble Wilford in The New York Times, Tuesday, November 27, 1990, pp. C1, C6. Archeologists working in El Castillo, Dominican Republic, have uncovered artifacts which lead them to believe that they may have found the site of Columbus' first colony in the New World - La Isabela.
WILL-JO1 ART "Ethnos and Jubilee: A Personal Epilogue" by John Alexander Williams in Encounters (February 1992, No. 8, pp. 26-29). This article examines the problems the Quincentenary Jubilee Commission has had in planning and implementation of the celebration.
WILLIAM2 ART "Columbus discussed by students" by John Williams in The Snapper (October 14, 1992 Vol. LXV No. 5 p. 1). This article recounts the mock trial of Columbus at the University of Minnesota in September of 1992. Accounts of the various points of view used in the trial is presented.
WILLS-01 ART "Man of the Year" by Garry Wills in The New York Review, November 21, 1991, pp. 12-18. Review of 13 books on the subject of Columbus, his voyages, his life, and his place in history.
WILLS-02 ART "Goodbye, Columbus" by Garry Wills in The New York Review, November 22, 1990, pp. 6-10. Review of three books on the subject of the Columbian Legacy, mostly on the anti-Columbus side.
WILSON01 ART "Peopling the Antilles." Samuel M. Wilson. Archaeology, September/October 1990, pp. 52-57. Columbus encountered a rich and complex culture, a "singularly friendly" people whose ancestors had colonized the Caribbean over the course of six millennia.
WILSON02 ART "Columbus, My Enemy" by Samuel M. Wilson in Natural History, December 1990, pp. 44-49. Discusses the early relations between Columbus (and his crews) and the indigenous populations of the Caribbean, especially focusing of the Taino and their ruler, Guarionex.
WILSON03 ART "Death and Taxes: Every Empire Has Its Price" by Samuel M. Wilson in Natural History, April 1991, pp. 22-25. Relates the activities of tribute collection by the Spanish Empire in the New World to the tax system of the Roman Empire and disscusses how the Spanish Empire worked in the New World.
WILSON04 ART "The Admiral and the Chief," Natural History, pp. 14-19, 3/91. An article by Samuel M. Wilson about the encounter between Columbus and the Taíno Indian chief Guacanagarí and the loss of the ship Santa María.
WILSON05 ART "Columbus's Competition" by Samuel M. Wilson in Natural History, January 1992, pp. 27-29. In their search for the Orient, Europeans were bound to sail west.
WILSON07 ART "The Unmanned Wild Countrey" by Samuel M. Wilson in Natural History (May 1992, pp. 16-17). This article examines the colonists justifications for taking Indian land during the early colonial period. Drawn from many period sources.
WILSON08 ART "The Gardeners of Eden: A bouquet of exotic flowers was one trophy of European expansion" by Samuel M. Wilson in Natural History (July 1992 pp. 20-23). This article tells of the importation of New World plants into the gardens of the Old World, and the impact that they made.
WILSON09 ART "The Emperor's Giraffe" by Samuel M. Wilson in Natural History (Vol. 101, No. 12, December 1992). Article points out that before European powers came to be a world trading power, China had established itself as a power.
WONG-01 ART "Columbus: The Departure Revisited" by Simone Wong. Encounters: A Quincentenary Review, Summer 1990, pp. 16-17. Talks about a work of art by Emanuel Leutze entitled "Columbus's Departure from Palos".
WYNTER02 ART "Una Perspectiva del 'Nuevo Mundo'" by Sylvia Wynter, Profesora en el Departamento de Español y Portugués y Estudios Afroamericanos en la Universidad de Standford. Article in Spanish from Excelsior, Ediciones Especiales (No. 9) Mexico, June 12, 1992. This article is about different perspective on the discovery of the "New World".
ZAIN-01 ART "The Scholarly Benefits of the Columbus Quincentennial Will Reach Far Beyond 1992" Chronicle of Higher Education 12 APR 89 2 pgs. Discusses Academic benefits stemming from Quincentennial celebrations.
ZAVALA01 ART "Cristobal Colon en la pintura de los siglos XIX y XX" by Silvio Zavala in Boletin 30 editorial de el Colegio de Mexico, pp. 12-17.
ZAVALA02 ART "Pluralidad de Encuentros," by Silvio Zavala, Historiador y Escritor / Mexicano. Article from Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), Mexico, D. F., October 12, 1992. Article in Spanish about Mexico's diverse cultural heritage.
ABERCRM1 ART "When the Moors Ruled Spain" from the National Geographic, July, 1988, by Thomas Abercrombie.
ACHEN-01 ART "Debating Columbus in A New World" by Joel Achenbach in The Washington Post National Weekly Edition, October 7-13, 1991, pp. 11-12. Shows both sides of the debate on how the Quincentenary should be commemorated and gives a detached, scientific view of Columbus' voyages and their consequences.
ALBION NTS Robert, G. Albion. Exploration and Discovery Macmillan Company, NY 1965 14 pgs. Discusses excitement and environment of the Age of Discovery and its impact on the Iberian Peninsula.
ALDEN-1 REV "Old Foods in the New World" by John R. Alden in Natural History (May 1994, Vol. 103, No. 5, pp. 76-79). Review of Sophie Coe's book, "America's First Cuisines," a study of the cuisine of the Aztec, Maya and Inca Indians.
ALLMAN01 ART "Lost Empires of the Americas" by William F. Allman with Joannie M. Schrof in: U.S. News and World Report (April 2, 1990). About newly found artifacts from archaeological digs, providing clues to the history of Andean civilizations.
ALTABE01 ART "The Significance of 1492 to the Jews and Muslims of Spain" by David Fintz Altabé in Hispania (September 1992 pp. 728-731). This article presents an example of a lesson to be taught concerning the Jewish and Muslim influence on science, mathematics, and navigaition during the time of Columbus.
ALVA-01 ART "Discovering the New World's Richest Unlooted Tomb" by Walter Alva in National Geographic, Vol. 174, No. 4, Oct. 1988, pp. 510-48. A new tomb, left unlooted by huaqueros, was discovered in Sipan, Peru. After careful excavation, the tomb has proved to be the richest unlooted tomb ever discovered and has provided valuable informtion on the Moche.
ARIDJIS1 ART "The Meeting of Two Natures" by Homero Aridjis in The Christian Science Monitor (Thursday, April 9, 1992, p. 19). This article discusses the exchange of plants and animals between the Native Americans and Columbus and the consequences of this interaction on the natural environment.
ASCD-01 REV ASCD Columbian Quincentennial Network and Clearinghouse Newsletter, Sept., 1991. This newsletter contains an annotated bibliography of books related to the quincentenary that are suitable for school age children.
ATKINSON NTS William L. Atkinson. A History of Spain and Portugal Penguin Books, London 1960. 2pgs. Discusses key points in the history of the Iberian Peninsula starting with the reconquest.
BARRON01 ART "He's the explorer/Exploiter You Just Have to Love/Hate" by James Barron in The New York Times (October 12, 1992 p. B7). This article presents the two sides of the Columbus Day celebrations. One being Columbus as a hero; the other being Columbus as a villain.
BOOTH-01 ART An article by William Booth entitled "Whispers From a Maya Tomb: In a mystery of the past, a warning for the future" from the Washington Post National Weekly Edition, p. 10, 6/10-16, 1991. Article discusses recent research at Dos Pilas, Guatemala and a possible answer for the fall of the Mayas.
BROWN-01 ART "Otras voces: A Case for Multiple Perspectives on El Quinto Centenario" by A. Dolores Brown in Hispania 75 (September 1992 pp. 732-733). Discussion of what the Encounter of Two Worlds should be striving for and how it should be taught, taking into consideration all sides of the issue.
BROWN-W1 ART "The Forgotten Heritage: African-Amerindian Relations in America" by Walton L. Brown from Proteus, Volume 9, Number 1, Fall 1992. Published by Shippensburg University. Rather than a history of European experience, this article is about the influence of African and Amerindians. Bibliography.
CAMREAL1 ART Catalog accompanying the exhibit, "El Camino Real: Un Sendero Historico." Developed by the Camino Real Project in cooperation with the Latin American Institute, University of New Mexico, with generous support from the National Endowment for the Humanities. This file is a list of captions replicated from each of the 36 panels of the exhibit on the Camino Real.
CARIB-01 ART "The Caribbean Celebrates Columbus" in Caribbean: Winter 1990-91, a supplement to Travel and Leisure, November 1990, pp. 8-14. This article contains brief information on Columubus, his four voyages, and celebrations planned for the Quincentennial in the Caribbean Islands.
CHADDOK1 ART "A Flotilla of Quincentenary Books" by Gail Russell Chaddock in The Christian Science Monitor, Friday, October 11, 1991, pp. 10-11. Columbus's voyages are explored by writers who attempt to explode myths and consider the impact of his arrival on peoples in the New World.
COLLIS NTS John Steward Collis. Christopher Columbus. Stein and Day, New York, 1977 9 pgs. Covers Columbus' life and the social/scientific evnironment which spurred him to explore.
COPEL-01 ART "The Sailors of Palos" by Peter F. Copeland, American History Illustrated, Vol XXVII, Number 1, March/April 93, pp. Article about the sailors on Columbus' first trip.
CROSBY01 NTS Alfred W. Crosby "The Columbian Voyages, The Columbus exchange and their Historians." American Historical Association, Essays on Global and Comparative History 1987 2 pgs. Discusses bardic writers fo history (contemporaries of Columbus and how they viewed the events).
CUMMINGS ART "The Columbus Family Chapel: The spirit of Columbus still pervades the New World" by Frank P. Cummings in the Sons of Italy TIMES (April 27, 1992). This article describes the Ciolumbus Family Chapel and some of the artifacts that are housed in this historic building.
DEBATE01 ART "The Great Debate" in Christian History Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). This article uses the arguments of two sixteenth century scholars, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda and Bartolomé de Las Casas who argued the Pros and Cons of religoious conquest in North America
DEIROS01 ART "Cross & Sword" by Pablo A. Deiros in Christian History Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). This article tells of the charecter of the Spanish explorers during the Conquest.
DIETZ01 ART "Ecoside: Legacy of the West" by D.T. Dietz in The Snapper (October 12, 1992 Vol. LXI No. 5 p. 2). This article discusses the lecture given by Kirkpatrick Sale at Millersville University on Columbus Day.
DILLON01 ART "Schools Growing Harsher In Scrutiny of Columbus" by Sam Dillon In The New York Times (October 12, 1992 Vol CXLII No. 49,117).This article discusses the closer examination that schools around the country are giving to the discovery of America and to Christopher Columbus. Also discussed is the revisionist's success in re-writing textbooks used in classrooms.
DONNAN01 ART "Iconography of the Moche: Unraveling the Mystery of the Warrior-Priest" by Christopher B. Donnan in National Geographic, Vol. 174, No. 4, October 1988, pp. 151-55. Discusses the life and role of the warrior-priest in Moche society as hypothesized from the Moche artifacts discovered in Sipan.
DUBIN-01 ART "A high-tech introduction to heritages" by Murray Dubin in The Philadelphia Inquirer, Tuesday, October 8, 1991, pp. 1B-2B. New computers at the Philadelphia Visitors Center give lists of heritage-related locations within the city.
DURANT NTS William Durant The Reformation - A History of European Civilization from Wyclif to Calvin: 1300-1564 Simon and Shuster, New York, 1957. 15pgs. Chapter XIII. Short synopsis of events occurring in the "known" world between 1300-1564.
DYSON-01 ART "Columbus: For Gold, God and Glory" by John Dyson in The World and I (Dec. 1991, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 357-371). Tells of a recreation of the trip of the Niña as background for recounting evidence for Dr. Luís Coin's theory that Columbus had a secret map and made deceptive log entries. See critique in JUDGE-01 REV*.
DYSON-02 ART "A Response" by John Dyson in The World & I (Dec. 1991, Vol. 6, No. 12, pp. 392-393). Reply to John Judge's critique of Dyson's book "Columbus: For Gold, God and Glory." Defends his conclusions.
ELLEMAN1 ART "The Columbus Encounter" by Barbara Elleman in Book Links, September 1991, pp. 6-13. This article contains a unit of study on Columbus using children's literature, listing many sample books with very short descriptions.
ELLIOTT NTS J.H. Elliott. The Old World and the New: 1492-1650 Cam- bridge University Press, 1970. 13pgs. Discusses the Europocentricity of our conception of history. Also discusses discovery's influence on Europe.
ENCYCLO NTS Duncan Castlereagh, "The Great Age of Exploration" The Encylcopedia of Discovery and Exploration. Doubleday Inc., Gordon City, NY 1973. Discusses how Columbus found America despite his mis- conceptions of global geography.
FASANO-1 ART "Nosotros, Postergados Sujetos de la Historia Universal," by Dr. Federico Fasano Mertens, Director de Republica/Uruguay, article from Ediciones Especiales (No. 13) Mexico, D. F., October 12, 1992. Article in Spanish about the contact between the East and West.
FOLINO-1 ART "The Unwarranted Bashing of Christopher Columbus" by Thomas F. Folino, Esq. in the Sons of Italy TIMES (March 16, 1992). A rebuttal of those who attack Columbus and wish not to celebrate the explorer.
FRENCH01 ART "Sing, O Jamaican Silt, of Columbus's Leaky Ships" by Howard W. French in The New York Times, Saturday, July 20, 1991, p. 2. Summary of the archeological expeditions in St. Ann's Bay for Columbus's last two caravels.
FRENCH02 ART "Pope's Mass at Dominican Monument to Columbus" by Howard W. French in The New York Times (October 12, 1992 p. B7). Reports on the Pope John Paul's pre-Columbus Day Mass at the site of the controversial Monument to Columbus built by the Dominican Republic.
FUNDORA1 ART "Toda Verdad Tiene Matices," by Orlando Fundora, Presidente del Comité Cubano por la paz y la Soberanía de los Pueblos. From Ediciones Especiales (No. 13)October 12, 1992. Article in Spanish; an indictment of Spain for cruelty.
FUSON-CC NTS Robert H. Fuson, Translator The Log of Christopher Columbus International Marine Publishing Co. Camden, ME 1987. Discusses Columbus' log and its fate.
GAMAREK2 ART "Grants Rejected; Scholars Grumble" by Barbara Gamarekian in The New York Times, April 10, 1991, pp. C13, C18. Talks about clash between the National Endowment for the Humanities and scholars on obtaining funds for Columbus/Quincentenary projects. Scholars want funds; N.E.H. can't provide any.
GANNON02 ART "Spanish Pathways" by Michael Gannon in Humanities, September/October 1991, Vol. 12, No. 5. Columbus and his encounters in the Caribbean. On-going.
GARRETT1 ART "La Ruta Maya" by Wilbur E. Garrett, Editor. National Geographic Magazine, October 1989, pp. 424-479. Five nations in Middle America put aside their differences to collaborate in es- tablishing La Ruta Maya - the Maya Route - an ambitious regional project designed to showcase and preserve their shared cultural, historical, and environmental heritage.
GERMAN01 NTS German Arciniegas America in Europe. Discusses the impact the discovery of America had on Europe.
GERMAN02 NTS German Arciniegas Amerigo and the New World: The Life and times of Amerigo Vespucci. A biography of Amerigo Vespucci.
GERMAN03 ART "German Arciniegas, La Pasion Americana." Entrevista a German Arciniegas (autor: Pilar Lozano) en America 92, Numeros 8 y 9, primer y segundo trimestre de 1987. Article appears in Spanish. Author talks about 500 years of American history.
GERTH-01 ART "Problems Plague the '92 Columbus Jubilee" by Jeff Gerth in The New York Times, Tuesday, December 18, 1990, pp. A1, B16. The Commission is plagued by problems including bad publicity on ex-chairman John Goudie and loss of funding from Texaco.
GIBSON NTS Charles Gibson. Spain in America Harper and Rowe, Scran- ton, PA 17pgs. Discusses Spanish involvement in the Americas.
GILES-02 ART "Christianity in the Americas - Spanish Developments, 1492-1810" by Thomas S. Giles in Christian History, Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). Provides a brief timeline of European involvement in the Americas as well an overview of world events.
GOLDEN01 ART "Columbus Landed, er, Looted, uh - Rewrite!" by Tim Golden in The New York Times, Sunday, October 6, 1991, Sec. 2, pp. 1, 36. Relates the current Columbus debate (history reassessment) to two movies, a TV series, and an art exhibit with short explanations on each.
GONZALE3 ART "Lights in the Darkness" by Justo L. Gonzalez in Christian History Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3. Deals with the Spanish conquest, Requerimiento, encomienda, Las Casas and other aspects of the European conquest.
GRAHAME1 ART "Joe Laufer Is Ready to Observe Columbus's Feat" by Ellen Graham, Staff Reporter, in The Wall Street Journal, May 16, 1991, pp. A1, A9. Discusses Mr. Laufer's efforts toward commemorating the Quincentenary, along with some current events on the 500th anniversary of Columbus voyages.
GRALICH1 ART "La Herencia Medieval de Mexico" by Michel Graulich in Boletin editorial de El Colegio de Mexico, julio-agosto 1990, pp. 5-8. Article in Spanish. About Medieval inheritance of Mexico.
HERRMANN NTS Paul Herrmann, trans. by Michael Bullock. Conquest by Man Harper and Brothers, New York, NY 27 pgs. Discusses man's conquest of Earth from pre-history to the 1500s.
HEYERDA1 NTS Thor Heyerdahl Early Man and the Ocean Doubleday 1979 12pgs. Discusses the history of man's interaction with the sea and sea travel, for trade, discovery
HEYERDA2 ART "Thor Heyerdahl: Sailing Against the Current" by: Thomas Moore; in: U.S. News and World Report (April 2, 1990). This articles reports the life of Thor Heyerdahl and his archeological dig in Peru of the biggest complex of pyramids in the Americas which may be a missing link in the chain of civilizations.
HISPANA1 ART Letters to the Editor from Hispania, Vol. 73(4), December 1990. Letters concerning diversified meanings of America and the Quincentenary held by different groups in the world. Also a letter discussing the need for bilingual teachers.
HONOR-D1 ART "'City of Brotherly Love' Changes Delaware Ave. To Christopher Columbus Blvd." in HONOR Digest, February/March 1991, Vol. 2, No. 2. Gives Native Americans' views of the proposal to change a street name to honor Columbus.
HUGHES01 ART "Just Who Was That Man?" by Robert Hughes in Time, October 7, 1991, pp. 58-59. No one is sure what Columbus looked like, but enough is known about him that the dispute over his legacy should not obscure his real accomplishments.
ITJOURN1 BIB "A Selected Bibliography" by Paolo Emilio Taviani in Italian Journal (1991, Vol. V, No. 5/6, pp. 31-37). Bibliography categorized by subject. Includes writings from a variety of viewpoints.
JACKSON1 ART "Who the heck did 'discover' the New World?" by Donald Dale Jackson in Smithsonian, September 1991, pp. 76-85. Talks about the question in the title, supplying many different answers - each with its own facts, myths, truths, and tales.
JOSEPHS1.ART "Face to Face with Torquemada" by Allen Josephs in The New York Times Book Review (June 16, 1991, p. 11) Review of:"The Life and Times of Juan Cabezon of Castile" by Homero Aridjis. Translated by Betty Ferber. 285 pp. New York: Summit Books
JOSEPHS2.ART Alvin M. Josephs, "Indians of Central America and the Caribbean Area," Indian Heritage of America, Houghton Miflin:Boston, 1991, pp. 219-233.
LEONARD ART "The New Spain: The Frontiers of Faith" OAH Newsletter Nov. '87 3 1/2 pgs. Talks about Texas Humanities Resource Center's Contributions to the Quincentenary celebrations, to include: photo-panel exhibition of documents etc, books, films and slide presentations. Discussion of Columbus' impact on "New World."
MAHN-LOT NTS Marianne Mahn-Lot Columbus Grove Press Inc. NY 1961, 10 pgs. A biography of Columbus. Includes a calendar of events from 1451, birth of Columbus, to 1506, his death.
MANIFST1 NEW The Manifest, March 1992, A Newsletter to the Associates of the James Ford Bell Library, Wilson Library, University of Minnesota. A short history of Hispaniola.
MARCUS01 ART "First Dates" by Joyce Marcus in Natural History, April 1991, pp. 26-29. Discusses early calendars and hieroglyphic writing systems that were used in Meso-america between 3,000 and 2,500 years ago.
MARVEL01 ART "Columbus: The Light of 11 October, 1492" by: J. Marvel, QH TCI, in: The Islands' Sun (March/April 1990). A discussion of the events of the night of October 11 when land was sighted by Columbus.
MARVELS1 ART "1992-93 Academic Theme to Celebrate Columbus" by Susan Marvel in The Snapper, Millersville University Student Newspaper (February 19, 1992, pp. 5-6). This article discusses the events Millersville University has scheduled to commemorate the Columbian Quincentenary.
MCDONL01 ART "The American Information Age Discovers Columbus" by William P. McDonald in Chicago Torch Club Newsletter, pp. 6-10. Discusses the general history of Columbus, his voyages, and present day theories about both himself and his voyages and then relates these ideas to the Information Age of today.
MCMANUS1 ART "Christopher Columbus' 500th anniversary - no celebration" by Michael S. McManus in the Intelligencer Journal (October 10, 1992 p. A6). This article discusses the reason why many people are not celebrating Columbus Day '92,including teh Pope. Addresses the cruelty of Columbus to the Native Americans.
MCNEILL2 ART "Debunking Columbus" by William H. McNeill in the New York Times Book Review, Ovt. 7, 1990, p. 28. A review of Kirkpatrick Sale's book The Conquest of Paradise: Chrisopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy.
MEE-01 ART "That fateful moment when two civilizations came face to face" by Charles L. Mee jr in the Smithsonian (October 1992 Volume 23, Number 7 pp. 57-69). This article describes the arrival of Hern n Cortés to the Aztec empire and the ensuing conquest of the Spanish over the Aztec forces.
MORISON1 NTS Samuel Eliot Morison. The Great Explorers: The European Discovery of America Oxford University Press, New York, 1978 6pgs. These selections are a biography of Columbus.
MUELLER ART "Teaching Beyond the Quincentennial" by RoseAnna M. Mueller in Hispania (September 1993, 76:3, pp. 585-592). Lists and examines teaching resources by kind (books, videos, games, texts, journals).
MULDOON1 ART "Columbus-bashing began in 1492" by James Muldoon in The Philadelphia Inquirer, August 10, 1991, Commentary. The Spanish were the first to criticize theviolation of human rights by conquests back in 1492. Examine the conception of human rights instead of just Columbus-bashing.
NADER ART "The Spanish Expansion" NEH Humanities DEC 85 5 pgs. The nature of the Spanish people in the 15th century and how that figured into their colonization of the New World.
NEW*TON NTS Arthur Percival Newton The Great Age of Discovery Burt and Franklin, NY 1970. 24 pgs. Discusses the continuity of history, calls in to question historians' arbitrary assignment of timeframes to historical periods.
ODLCASE1 ART "Geographical Background of the First Voyage of Columbus" by Clarence B. Odell and Dale Edward Case, in Cartocraft Teaching Aids (Series 1962-63, Vol. III, No. 5) A Service Publication of The Geographical Research Institute A Division of the Denoyer-Geppert Company, Chicago. The geographical background of Columbus and his crew. The misconceptions that we have concerning the voyage are discussed.
PARRY-01 NTS Selected passages from: J. H. Parry, The European Reconnaissance: Selected Documents, Walker and Co., New York, 1968. Illustrates the European discovery of the remainder of the world from Asia and Africa to the Americas.
PARRY-02 NTS Notes on the book by J.H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance, The World Publishing Company, Cleveland & New York, 1963.
PROVOST1 ART 1992: A Columbus Newsletter (No. 12, Fall 1990), edited by Foster Provost. Contains discussions and critiques of a few recently published books and articles about Columbus.
RASKAS01 ART "Curses on Columbus: Some thoughts on the man who (maybe) started it all" by Rabbi Bernard S. Raskas in The Jewish Exponent, October 11, 1991, pp. 3, 53. This article discusses some Jewish contributions to America.
REID-01 ART "Reflections: Waiting for Columbus" by Alastair Reid in The New Yorker, February 24, 1992, pp. 57-75. An overview of Columbus, the Age of Discovery, the indigenous peoples of the New World, and the upcoming commemorations of the Quincentenary as they apply to Hispaniola, especially the peninsula of Samana.
RIDING01 ART "500 Years Later, Latin America Can Forgive Spain" by Alan Riding in The New York Times (Thursday, February 13, 1992, p. 2). This article examines the relationship between Spain and Latin America on the eve of the quincentenary celebration.
RIDING02 ART "6 Ships, 2 Queens, Many Headaches" by Alan Riding in The New York Times (Sunday, March 15, 1992). A comparison of the two movies, "Christopher Columbus: The Discovery" and "1492".
RUBINO-1 ART "El Origen Italiano de Colón," by Maria Teresa Rubino, Colaboradora de EL TIEMPO / COLOMBIA. From Ediciones Especiales (No. 13), October 12, 1992. Christopher Columbus' true nationality. There are those who claim he was born in Genova, and those who say he was from Spain.
SABLOFF1 ART "Turning Points: Maya archeology comes of age" by Jeremy A. Sabloff in Natural History, January 1991, pp. 7-11. For generations, archeologists and other scholars have labored to understand the rise and fall of the Maya civilization. In a special series of articles, "Natural History" explores some of the recent discoveries and interpretations that are bringing this work to fruition.
SAUER01 NTS Northern Mists University of California Press, Los Angeles, CA. Discusses history of the Iberian Peninsula through Colombus, also discusses Viking forays to America.
SCHELE01 ART "The Owl, Shield, and Flint Blade" by Linda Schele in Natural History, November 1991, pp. 6-11. In A.D. 378, the Maya learned the of conquest.
SCHLESINGER HTML "Was America A Mistake" by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., in Atlantic Monthly (Sept. 1992, pp. 16-30). Articulates the range of views on the significance of the Encounter, Columbus, and the Quincentennial. Reviews a variety of past and present opinions.
SHREV*E01 ART "Christopher Columbus: A Bibliographic Voyage" by Jack Shreve in Choice (January 1991, Vol. 29, pp. 703-711). This article gives bibliographic information on numerous aspects of Columbus's life along with a brief description of the work cited.
SILVER01 ART "Discovering Columbus" by Marc Silver in U.S. News & World Report (October 7, 1991, pp. 91-93). Review of numerous books now in print on Columbus regarding various viewpoints on his life.
SMITH-02 ART "The Search for the Lost Caravels" by Roger C. Smith in American Archeology (Vol. 6, No. 2, 1987). Discussion of Columbus' ships and their archaeological remains.
SMITH-05 ART "The Father of California" by James D. Smith III in Christian History, Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). This article tells of Junípero Serra's ambition to start Franciscan missions in California during the eighteenth century.
STANLEY1 ART "The Invasion of the Niña, the Pinta and the Santa María" by Alessandra Stanley in The New York Times, Sunday, June 2, 1991, p. E4. Lately, Columbus is being depicted as an imperialist and genocidal despoiler of the environment by some revisionists.
STONE-01 ART "Columbus and Genocide" by Edward T. Stone in American Heritage, Vol. XXVI, No. 6, October 1975, pp. 4-7, 76-79. Attempts to show how Columbus was responsible, through his actions, for the destruction of the Arawak Indians of the Caribbean.
STRAUG01 ART "The secrets of ancient Tiwanaku are benefiting today's Bolivia" by Baird Straughan in Smithsonian, February 1991, pp. 38-49. Archeologists discover the ancient civilization of Tiwanaku, whose method of farming is helping Bolivian people better survive today.
STUART*01 ART "City of Kings and Commoners: Copan" by George E. Stuart. National Geographic Magazine, October 1989, pp. 488-505. New discoveries at Copan in western Honduras help explain the mysterious "collapse" of this Maya capital a millenium ago.
TAYLOR01 ART "Christianity Comes to the Americas" by William D. Taylor in Christian History, Issue 35 (Vol. XI, No. 3). This article provides a brief accounting of the native peoples and missionary groups during the Conquest.
TELTSCH1 ART "Scholars and Descendants Uncover Hidden Legacy of Jews in Southwest" by Kathleen Teltsch in The New York Times, Sunday, November 11, 1990, p. 30. Discusses possible Jewish settlements in the Southwest U.S. (New Mexico) in the 1500's and contains comments from a few people who have or are discovering their Jewish roots.
THERNST1 ART "The Columbus Controversy" by Stephan Thernstrom in American Educator, Spring 1992, pp. 24, 28-32. This article discusses the present controversy over Columbus and tries to give a balanced perspective of Columbus and the Age of Discovery.
TURNER01 ART "In Focus: Arthur A. Demarest" (On the Trail of a Lost Civilization) by James S. Turner in Humanities, Vol. 12, No. 5, September/October 1991, p. 35. Arthur Demarest discusses his expeditions in search of the reasons why the Mayan civilization collapsed.
VARGAS01 ART "Question of Conquest" by Mario Vargas Llosa in American Educator, Spring 1992, pp. 25-27, 47-48. Discusses the conquest of Latin American Indians by the Spaniards and the past, present, and future of Indian cultures in our world.
VAZQUEZ1 ART "Colon y Los Indios: Revelaciones de la Desnudez" by Juan Adolfo Vazquez in MACLAS Latin American Essays (April 1991, Vol. V, pp. 67-94). Spanish. Views the voyages of Columbus and his companions from the standpoint of their effects upon the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.
VOYAGES1 CHR Frederick J. Pohl "Chronology of Voyages of Exploration, 1486-1522" Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major 2pgs. Chronology of voyages; dates sailed from home port, where they went and when returned.
WALKER01 ART "Discovering Columbus - Again" by Ruth Walker in The Christian Science Monitor, Friday, October 11, 1991, p. 9. A brief overview of Columbus, his voyages, and the quincentennial from the viewpoint of two Columbus biographies.
WATTS01 ART "Columbus's Crusade" NEH Humanties DEC '85 4 pgs. Discusses Columbus' motives for making his voyage, and religious views he held.
WATTS02 ART "Prophecy and Discovery: On the Spiritual Origins of Churstopher Columbus's 'Enterprise of the Indies.'" American Historical Review FEB 85 30 pgs. Shows a very spiritual man in Christopher Columbus. Influence of religion
WEAVER-1 ART "Exploring the World of Spices," by William Woys Weaver from Saturday Evening Post, pp. 22-24. Traces briefly the history of spice trade and Columbus.
WEAVER-B ART "Controversial author to give lecture" by Brian Weaver in The Snapper (October 7, 1992 p. 14). This article tells of the upcoming talk by Kirkpatrick Sale on Columbus Day at Millersville University.
WEINRB01 ART "It's Columbus Against Columbus, With a Fortune in Profits at Stake" by Bernard Weinraub in The New York Times, May 21, 1992, pp. C17, C24. Article gives a brief description of the two upcoming movies about Columbus and his life.
WIESEN NTS Translated by Richard and Clara Winston, Sails of Hope: The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus Macmillan Publishing Com. Inc., New York. 1973. Discusses Columbus' Jewish heritage and the Inquistion environment.
WILFORD4 ART "Discovering Columbus" by John Noble Wilford in The New York Times Magazine, August 11, 1991, pp. 25+. Discusses how Columbus has been, through the centuries, the measure of his worshipers and denigrators. "Book Writing by Maya Is Put Centuries Earlier" by John Noble Wilford in The New York Times International, 12/5/91, p. A12.
WILFORD6 ART "Maya Ruins Offer Glimpse of Royalty" by John Noble Wilford in The New York Times (April 5, 1992). This article describes the archeological finds in the Mayan city of Cop n, and the impact these finds will mean to Mayan scholars.
WILFORD7 HTML "Human Presence in Americas Is Pushed Back a Millennium" by John Noble Wilford, The New York Times. Tuesday, February 11, 1997. After long, often bitter debate, archeologists have finally come to a consensus that humans reaches southern Chile 12,500 years ago. The date is more than 1,000 years before the previous benchmark for human habitation in the Americas, 11,200-year-old stone spears points first discovered in the 1930's near Clovis, N.M.
WILLIAM2 ART "Columbus discussed by students" by John Williams in The Snapper (October 14, 1992 Vol. LXV No. 5 p. 1). This article recounts the mock trial of Columbus at the University of Minnesota in September of 1992. Accounts of the various points of view used in the trial is presented.
WINCHE01 ART "After dire straits, an agonizing haul across the Pacific" by Simon Winchester in Smithsonian, April 1991, pp. 84-95. Discusses Magellan's trying yet glorious circumnavigation of the globe from beginning to end along with the reasons for undertaking the voyage in the first place.
WYNTER01 ART "1492: A 'New World' View" by Sylvia Wynter in The New World, Spring/Summer 1991, No. 2, pp. 4-5. How should we look back on, interpret and mark Columbus' voyages? Sylvia Wynter gives her opinion with support.

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